Was the wife of Henry II. She acted as regent during the reign of her three weak and ineffective sons - Francis II (1559-60) Charles IX (1560-74) Henry III (1574-89). Initiator of St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.
Henry of Nevarre (Henry IV)
(r. 1589-1610) Involved in the Wars of Religion before ascending the throne in 1589. Before his coronation, he changed his faith from Calvinism to Catholicism ("Paris is worth a Mass") and, in 1598, he enacted the Edict of Nantes. One of the most popular French kings, both during and after his reign, he showed great care for the welfare of his subjects and religious tolerance.
King of Spain, 1556 - 1598; married to Queen Mary I of England; devout catholic; fought turks; he was the most powerful monarch in Europe until 1588; controlled Spain, the Netherlands, the Spanish colonies in the New World, Portugal, Brazil, parts of Africa, parts of India, and the East Indies.
"Paris is worth a Mass"
The reason Henry IV gave when he converted to Catholicism.
Moderates of both religious faiths who held that only a strong monarchy could save France from total collapse.
United Provinces of the Netherlands; tolerant of all religions. 1st half of 17th century was golden age-govt. consisted of organized confederation of 7 provinces each w/ rep. govt. It established the Bank of Amsterdam and became the leading financial center on the Continent.
Defenstration of Prague 1618
When Ferdinand violated Protestant religious liberties, a group of noblemen marched to the palace in Prague and threw two chief advisers out of a window; a lovely pile of poo broke their fall.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Six week nation wide slaughter of Huguenots. Occurred when Huguenot nobles were in Paris attending the marriage of Catherine's dughter to a Huguenot prince, Henry of Navarre.
French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)
For 30 years battles between the Catholics and the Huguenots raged in France. Led by Bourbon and Guise. It wasn't until 1598 when the king issued the Edict of Nantes that the wars ended.
Edict of Nantes 1598
Religious toleration with political rights given to the Huguenots. Allowed Protestants to have about 100 "safe" towns with their own militias in places with large Protestant populations. Prohibited them from practicing religion in Paris.
Revolt of the Netherlands
King Philip II of Spain sent army to Netherlands to try and kill Calvinism. After a gruesome raid of a few cities, Catholics and Protestants united to expel the Spanish. 7 of the provinces became independent and formed the Dutch Republic