What are organic compounds?
anything with carbon based molecules
What about carbon makes it the perfect atom to make a diversity of molecules?
carbon can make up to 4 covalent bonds because it has 4 electrons in an outer shell that holds 8.
What other element besides carbon is very common in biological molecules?
What are the 4 major groups of biological molecules?
What are carbs? What are they used for?
Sugars & Starch
-source of energy in animals
-source of structure in plants
What are monosaccharides?
simple sugars made of a singe sugar molecule
-glucose or fructose
Want are disaccharides?
simple sugar made of 2 sugar molecules
What are 3 polysaccharides and their functions?
Long chains of sugar molecules
1.starch-plants store as excess sugar
2.glycogen-animals store as excess sugar
3.cellulose-not used for energy (plant structure)
What is special about cellulose?
the most abundant organic material on earth, but most animals can not digest it. (cows & rabbits can)
What do all lipids have in common?
they are hydrophobic and do not mix well with water
they are non polar
they are fats and steroids (fats store energy twice as much as carbs)
How do the terms hydrophobic and hydrophilic relate to solubility in water?
hydrophobic do not mix well with water
hydrophilic do mix well with water
What are the two major groups of lipids?
Fats and Steroids
What are the differences between saturated and unsaturated fats?
Saturated: solid at room temp, stick together inside and outside body. ex: meat & dairy
Unsaturated: liquid at room temp. Mostly from plants
What is trans fat?
processed fat that makes it solid at room temperature. Dangerous because it tends to stick together. Hydrogenated.
What are the 2 types of steroids discussed in lecture?
cholesterol and testosterone/estrogen
Vital component to the membrane that surrounds all cells
what is the basic unit of protein?
what are the functions of protein?
structure (hair & Horns)
storage (provide amino acids for growth)
contractile (helps with movement, muscles)
transport (move substances around)
enzymes (help chemical reactions)
What are nucleic acids?
Used to make proteins
What is the function of DNA?
Holds our genetic information
What are genes?
a stretch of DNA that codes for a specific protein
What is the overall shape of DNA?