APES (Chapter 2 Vocab)

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matter

Anything that occupies space and has mass.

mass

A measurement of the amount of matter an object contains.

atom

The smallest particle that can contain the chemical properties of an element.

element

A substance composed of atoms that cannot be broken down into smaller, simpler components.

periodic table

A chart of all chemical elements currently known, organized by their properties.

molecule

A particle containing more than one atom.

compound

A molecule containing more than one element.

atomic number

The number of protons in the nucleus of a particular element.

mass number

A measurement of the total number of protons and neutrons in an element.

radioactive decay

The spontaneous release of material from the nucleus of radioactive isotopes.

half-life

The time it takes for one-half of an original radioactive parent atom to decay.

covalent bond

The bond formed when elements share electrons.

ionic bond

A chemical bond between two oppositely charged ions.

hydrogen bond

A weak chemical bond that forms when hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded to one atom are attracted to another atom on another molecule.

polar molecule

A molecule in which one side is more positive and the other side is more negative.

surface tension

A property of water that results from the cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water and creates a sort of skin on the water's surface.

capillary action

A property of water that occurs when adhesion of water molecules to a surface is stronger than cohesion between the molecules.

acid

A substance that contributes hydrogen ions to a solution.

base

A substance that contributes hydroxide ions to a solution.

pH

The number indicating the strength of acids and bases on a scale of 0 to 14, where 7 is neutral, a value below 7 is acidic, and a value above 7 is basic (alkaline).

chemical reaction

A reaction that occurs when atoms separate from molecules or recombine with other molecules.

law of conservation of matter

A law of nature stating that matter cannot be created or destroyed.

inorganic compound

A compound that does not contain the element carbon or contains carbon bound to elements other than hydrogen.

organic compound

A compound that contains carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds.

carbohydrate

A compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.

protein

A long chain of nitrogen-containing organic molecules known as amino acids, critical to living organisms for structural support, energy storage, internal transport, and defense against foreign substances.

nucleic acids

Organic compounds found in all living cells, which form in long chains to make DNA and RNA.

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

A nucleic acid, the genetic material that contains the code for reproducing the components of the next generation, and which organisms pass on to their offspring.

RNA (ribonucleic acid)

A nucleic acid that translates the code stored in DNA and allows for the synthesis of proteins.

lipids

Smaller organic biological molecules that do not mix with water.

cell

A highly organized living entity that consists of the four types of macromolecules and other substances in a watery solution, surrounded by a membrane.

energy

The ability to do work or transfer heat.

electromagnetic radiation

A form of energy emitted by the Sun that includes, but is not limited to, visible light, ultraviolet light, and infrared energy.

photon

A massless packet of energy that carries electromagnetic radiation at the speed of light.

joule

The amount of energy used when a one-watt electrical device is turned on for one second.

power

The rate at which work is done.

potential energy

Stored energy that has not been released.

kinetic energy

The energy of motion.

chemical energy

Potential energy stored in chemical bonds.

temperature

The measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance.

first law of thermodynamics

A law of nature stating that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.

second law of thermodynamics

The law stating that when energy is transformed, the quantity of energy remains the same, but its ability to do work diminishes.

energy efficiency

The ratio of the amount of work done to the total amount of energy introduced to the system.

energy quality

The ease with which an energy source can be used for work.

entropy

Randomness in a system.

open system

A system in which exchanges of matter or energy occur across system boundaries.

closed system

A system in which matter and energy exchanges do not occur across boundaries.

input

An addition to a system.

output

A loss from a system.

systems analysis

An analysis to determine inputs, outputs, and changes in a system under various conditions.

steady state

A state in which inputs equal outputs, so that the system is not changing over time.

feedback

An adjustment in input or output rates caused by changes to a system.

negative feedback loop

A feedback loop in which a system responds to a change by returning to its original state, or by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring.

positive feedback loop

A feedback loop in which change in a system is amplified.

adaptive management plan

A plan that provides flexibility so that managers can modify it as changes occur.

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