Chapter 3 - Digestion

45 terms by Kadeus

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Mouth

Chews and mixes food with saliva

Pharynx

Directs food from mouth to esophogus

Salivary glands

Secrete saliva (contains starch-digesting enzymes)

Epiglottis

Protects airways during swallowing

Trachea

Allows air to pass to and from lungs

Esophagus

Passes food from the mouth to the stomach

Esophageal sphincters

Allow passage from mouth to esophagus and from esophagus to stomach; prevent backflow from stomach to esophagus and from esophagus to mouth

Diaphram

Separates the abdomen from the thoracic cavity

Stomach

Adds acid, enzymes, and fluid; churns, mixes, and grinds food to a liquid mass

Pyloric sphincter

Allows passage from stomach to small intenstine; prevents backflow from small intestine

Liver

Manufactures bile salts; detergent-like substances to help digest fats

Gallbladder

Stores bile until needed

Bile duct

Conducts bile from the gallbladder to the small intestine

Appendix

Stores lymph cells

Small intestine

Secretes enzymes that digest all energy-yielding nutrients to smaller nutrient particles; cells of wall absorb nutrients into blood and lymph

Ileocecal valve (sphincter)

Allows passage from small to large intestine; prevents backflow from large intestine

Pancreas

Manufactures enzymes to digest all energy-yielding nutrients and releases bicarbonate to nuetralize acid chyme that enters the small intestine

Pancreatic duct

Conducts pancreatic juice from the pancrease to the small intestine

Large intestine (colon)

Reabsorbs water and minerals; passes waste (fiber, bacteria, and unabsorbed nutrients) along with water to the rectum

Rectum

Stores waste prior to elimination

Anus

Holds rectum closed; opens to allow elimination

Bolus

Food leaving the mouth

Chyme

Food leaving the stomach

Intrinsic Factor

Binds to Vitamin B12 in the stomach with HCl

Gastric Acid

HCl-, kills bacteria & denatures protein

Pepsin

enzyme that breaks protein apart

Gastric Lipase

breaks up lipids in stomach

Goblet cells

in stomach; release mucous

mucous

protects stomach lining; released by goblet cells

Amylase

breaks down sugars/carbs

bile

made by liver, stored & secreted in gall bladder; emulsifies fat in intestine

active transport

requires energy (glucose)

facilitated transport

requires some energy (amino acids & fructose)

passive diffusion

no energy required (lipids)

What changes would you need if you did not have a stomach?

Small frequent meals and vitamin b12 injections

saliva

begins carbohydrate digestion

protease

enzyme which hydrolyzes proteins

bile is produced in the

liver

bile is stored in the

gallbladder

gastrin

responds to food in stomach; secreted from stomach wall/ stimulated stomach glands to release hydrochloric acid into stomach

secretin

responds to acidic chyme in the small intestine; secreted from duodenal wall; stimulates pancrease to release bicarbonate-rich juices into small intestine

cholecystokinin

responds to fat or protein in the small intestine; secreted from intestinal wall; stimulates gallbladder to secrete bile into duodenum; stimulates pancreae to release bicarbonate juices into small intestine

villi

fingerlike projections from the folds of the small intestine; singular is "villus"

microvilli

tiny, hairlike projections on each cell of every villus that can trap nutrient particles and transport them into the cells

goblet cells

cells of the GI tract that secrete mucus

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