What are bone markings?
Projections, depressions, and openings
Why are bones considered organs?
They consist of several different tissues.
What are the functions of bone markings?
They are sites of muscle, ligament, and tendon attatchment, joint surfaces, conduits for blood vessels and nerves.
Large, rounded projection; may be roughened.
Narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent.
Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process (the only examples are on the femur).
Narrow ridge of bone, less prominent than a crest.
Small rounded projection or process.
Raised area on or above condyle.
Sharp, slender, often pointed projection.
Any bony prominence.
Bony expansion carried on a narrow neck.
Smooth, nearly flat articular surface.
Rounded articular projection.
Armelike bar of bone.
Narrow, slitlike opening.
Round or oval opening through a bone.
Indentation at the edge of a structure.
Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane.
Shallow, basinlike depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface.
What is compact bone?
Dense outer layer, looks smooth and solid.
What is spongy bone?
Internal layer, honycomb of small needle-like or flat pieces called trabeculae. Looks like a poorly organized tissue and does not have any osteons.
The irregular latticework of thin bony plates in spongy bone tissue.
What is found between the trabeculae?
Red or yellow bone marrow.
Where is the trabeculae located?
In living bones.
dia=through, physis=growth; Shaft forming the long axis of the bone.
"Middle"; Bone marrow cavity.
Yellow bone marrow
Bone marrow in which the meshes of the reticular network are filled with fat.
epi=upon; Bone ends.
Covers most ends of bones at movable joints.
In adults; remnant of epiphyseal plate.
A disc of hyaline cartilage that grows during childhood to lengthen bone.
peri=around, osteo=bone; The external surface of the entire bone except the joint surfaces is covered by this glistening white, double-layered membrane.
What are the two layers of the preiosteum?
The fibrose and osteogenic layer.
What is the fibrose layer of the periosteum?
Dense irregular connective tissue.
What is the osteogenic layer of the periosteum?
Abutting the bone surface, consists primairly of bone forming cells called osteoblasts.
A thin membrane that lines the internal bone surface facing the medullary cavity.
Secures the periosteum to underlying bone.
"Bone germinators", bone forming cells.
"Bone breakers", bone-destroying cells.
Describe the design of short, irregular and flat bones.
They all consist of thin plates of periosteum-covered compact bone on the outsde and endosteum-covered spongy bone within.
"Folded"; spongy bone in flat bones.
What is the hematopoietic tissue of bones?
Where is red marrow located?
Within the trabecular cavities of the spongy bone of long bones and in the diploe of flat bones.
Where is red marrow found in infants?
All spongy bone areas, and in the medullary cavity of the diaphysis.
Where is red marrow found in adults?
Some flat bones (sternum) and irregular bones (hip bone).
What is the structural unit of compact bone?
Either a osteon or a Haversian system.
A structural unit of bone consisting of a Haversian canal and corresponding lamellae of compact bone.
An elongated cylinder oriented parallel to the long azis of the bone.
Perforating or volkmann's canal
Lie at right angles to the long axis of the bone and connect the blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to those in the central canal and medullary cavity.
Spider-shaped, cell of osseous tissue within the bone matrix, tissue or cell walls.
lac=hallow, una= little; munute cavities in bone.
"Little plate", thin plate, scale, membrane, or layer, as of bone, tissue or cell walls.
Central canal (Harversian canal)
The canal in the center of each osteon taht contains minure blood vessels and nerve fibers that serve the need of the osterocytes.
Hairlike canals that connect the lacunae to each other and to the central canal.
One of the layers of bone that underline the periosteum and endosteum.
Incomplete lamellae that lie between intact osteons, either fill gaps between forming osteons or are remnants of osteons that have been cut through by bone remodeling.
A central canal and all the concentric lamellae surrounding it; aka Haversian system.
What are the organic componets of bone?
The cells and osteoid.
Name several types of cells in bone.
Osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes.
The organic part of the matrix.
What is oseoid composed of?
Ground substance (proteoglycans and glycoprotines) and cologen fibers.
What does the composition of osteoid contrubute to bone?
Structure and flexibility and tersile strength.
What is the majority of the inorganic componets of bone that make up 65% of bone by mass?
Hydroxyapatites or mineral salts; calcum phosphates.
What does the inorganic componet aspect account for?
The external hardness.