Pathology Unit 1: Acute Inflammation

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acute inflammation

.... is a generalized, initial reaction to various kinds of injury, that comes with a quintet of classical symptoms and neutrophils are the key players

neutrophils

.... are the key player in the acute inflammation process

5

there are ... classical symptoms of acute inflammation

acute

.... inflammation has both beneficial effects and deleterious side effects, and it is not only local, but also systemic effects as well

acute inflammation

the following are causes of .....:
1. Infection: Bacterial or viral (especially cytotoxic ones), fungal
2. Hypersensitivity: Allergic rhinitis, drug reactions, serum sickness, TB reaction
3. Physical agents: Trauma, radiation, thermal damage (sunburn)
4. Chemicals: Acids/bases, bacterial toxins
5. Other reasons for necrosis: Infarction

infection

one cause of acute inflammation is .... which can be Bacterial or viral (especially cytotoxic ones) or fungal

hypersensitivity

.... of the immune system is another cause of acute inflammation, and examples of this include:
Allergic rhinitis, drug reactions, serum sickness, TB reaction

physical agents

.... are another cause of acute inflammation and examples of these include: Trauma, radiation, thermal damage (sunburn)

chemicals

.... are a cause of acute inflammation and include: Acids/bases, bacterial toxins

infarction

.... is an example of a cause of acute inflammation that is due to tissue necrosis

Red, warm, swollen, painful, impaired function

..... are the 5 classical signs/symptoms of acute inflammation

acute inflammation

Red, warm, swollen, painful, impaired function. Are the 5 classical signs/symptoms of ....

transient

the initial stage of acute inflammation is the ... local blood vessel constriction (due to local damage) and this is important if the blood vessel is compromised, so it minimizes blood loss and promotes clot formation

constriction

the initial stage of acute inflammation is the transient local blood vessel .... due to local damage and this is important if the blood vessel is compromised, so it minimizes blood loss and promotes clot formation

vasoconstriction

.... of local blood vessels in the initial stage of acute inflammation minimizes blood loss and promotes clot formation

minimize blood loss and promote clot formation

..... are the two main goals of the initial stage of the acute inflammation process

hyperemia

....aka redness is the second step in the process of acute inflammation due to:
Relaxation of precapillary sphincters
Dilation of arterioles
Mediated by histamine, prostaglandins, and nitric oxide (NO)

histamine, prostaglandins, and nitric oxide

.... are the three chemicals that help to mediate the hyperemia stage of the acute inflammation mechanism

relaxation of precapillary sphincters and dilation of arterioles

.... are the two main actions that increase the hyperemia at the site of the tissue damage during the second step of the acute inflammation mecahnism

smooth muscle

arteries unlike veins have .... which allows them to vasoconstrict and participate in the acute inflammation mechanism

vascular permeability

increased ... is the third step in the acute inflammation process that can lead to local edema, and this increased .. is due to chemical mediators of inflammation cause small gaps to open between endothelial cells

vascular permeability

Endothelial cells, tissue mast cells, platelets and others secrete these factors that cause increased ....

blood

also other chemical factors in the ... can bring other important chemical mediators to cause increased vascular permeablity

plasma

... components such as complement, coagulation and kinin systems also lead to increased vascular permeability in the third stage of the acute inflammation process

histamine, bradykinin, NO, C5a, leukotrienes, platelet activating factor

.... are six other important factors that come from the blood to help increase vascular permability in the local area in the acute inflammation process

damage

sometimes the increased permeability of blood vessels to allow factors in the inflammation process and neutrophils to make their way to the site of tissue damage, can cause edema which can ... the endothelial cells of the blood vessel

C3a and C5a

.... are the two factors in the complement cascade that are of interest to us in the acute inflammation response because they cause chemotaxis of neutrophils (neutrophils want to move in their direction)

C3a and C5a

are the chemotactic factors of the complement system that lure neutrophils to the site of acute inflammation

C6789

... is the name of the complement system's end product which is the aparatus that can punch holes in the cell walls of foreign cells and plays a role in our immune system

membrane attack complex

... is the name of C6789 of the complement cascade

C3b

is opsin, in the complement cascade and it caused the opsonizaton of bacteria, viral particles, and other foreign bodies. This member of the complement series coats these unwanted substances, and makes them highly attractive to neutrophils who will want to phagocytose them.

granulocytes

is the name given to Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells in our immune system because all of the cells appear to have little granules in them

neutrophils

aka polymorphonuclearleukocytes (PMH or polys)
are the granulocytes that are the biggest players in the acute inflammation process

eosinophils

... are granulocytes that have reddish granules inside of them and bilobed nucleus. .... are often associated with allergic reaction and parasites

basophils

are also granulocytes, but are less common and are not seen on many blood smears unless examining the bone marrow. These granulocytes have dark blue big granules, and mast cells look purple

C3a and C5a

... are the parts of the complement system that bring in neutrophils to the site of endothelial tissue damage

margination

... is alteration in blood composition and flow in response to local tissue damage, usually due to vasocontriction of blood vessels near tissue damage, creating a smaller lumen, which draws more WBC

adhesion

....occurs when the secretin expressed on the surface of the neutrophils following C3a and C5a binds with the secretin on the blood vessel wall of the constricted lumen. Is a rolling process via selectin-selectin interactions

tight

... adhesion occurs after the rolling process of neutrophil secretin on blood vessel lumen secretin, and occurs via the integrin-ICAM interaction

integrin-ICAM interaction

.... is what causes the tight adhesion of neutrophils to the lumen of the constricted blood vessel near the site of tissue damage where acute inflammation is occuring

emigration

.... of the neutrophils via chemotaxis to the site of injury, occurs when the neutrophil going through the leaky blood vessel via transmigration, and then via chemotaxis to the site, is the final step in the journey of a neutrophil to the site of tissue damage to participate in the acute inflammation process

phagocytosis

after a neutrophil follows C3a and C5a to site of injury it sees foreign bodies and destroys them via ... and displays the particles on its cell surface, and eventually undergoes apoptosis

neutrophils

... are the body's experts in "hand to hand" combat with foreign bodies, and can work via 4 ways
1. opsonization
2. phagocytosis
3. digestion via lysozyme
4. chemical warfare

opsonization

in .... the complement system/immunoglobulin coats the foreign body in a substance that draws neutrophils in to phagocytose it

lysosome

once a neutrophil has phagocytosed its opsonized target, the digested target is destroyed in the neutrophil;s ....

lysosome

the ... has 2 different mechanisms it can use to destroy a phagocytosed foreign body
1. oxygen dependent rxn (oxygen radicals + other chemicals to yield HOCl (bleach)
2. oxygen independent rxns- using enzymes such as lysozyme, lactoferrin, acidic pH, cationic proteins

lysosome

chemical warfare for the neutrophil involves the release of the ....'s contents into the environment around the neutrophil (so pour bleach and lysozyme and other enzymes out for extracellular bacteriocidal effect!)

serous

....inflammation is a subtype of acute inflammation in which mostly plasma components are involved, often "sterile" inflammation, because of clear, straw-colored fluid from wound that is not infectious. Tissue will appear boggy,

blister

an example of a serous inflammation is a ... that has ruptured

suppurative

aka purulent inflammation is a subtype of acute inflammation that mostly has ceullar components involved, that has a white, and pussy fluid look (smells bad too), and is often seen in bacterial infections, so discharge can be infectious

fibrinous

... inflammation is a subtype of acute inflammation that is similar to serous inflammation that has plasma components involved but a lot of it is fibrinogen, so see a chunky, pink serous fluid coming from wound

beneficial

the ... effects of acute inflammation include vasodilation and edema

vasodilation

.... is a beneficial effect of acute inflammation because this allows for increased delivery of nutrients, oxygen, antibodies, other proteins, drugs

edema

.... is a beneficial effect of acute inflammation because it allows for the dilution of toxins, and stimulation of local lymph nodes

harmful

the ... effects of acute inflammation include damage to surrounding tissue and anatomic dysfuction

damage

... to the surrounding tissue is one harmful effect of acute inflammation (because neutrophil spilling enzymes and bleach on healthy tissue is not good)

anatomic dysfunction

..... due to the swelling associated with edema is another harmful effect of the acute inflammation process

fever, fatigue, anorexia, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly

are 5 of the major systemic effects of acute inflammation

pyrexia

.... aka fever is mediated in the acute inflammation response mainly by IL-1 produced by leukocytes and endothelial cells, acts on hypothalamus

IL-1

... produced by leukocytes and endothelial cells, acts on hypothalamus is what mediates pyrexia (fever) in the acute inflammation process

fatigue and anorexia

Constitutional symptoms such as ... are also mediated by IL -1 in addition to thyroid hormone alterations

IL-1 and thyroid hormone

.... alterations can cause fatigue and anorexia in the acute inflammation process

anorexia

... and weight loss during the acute inflammation process is due to the mobilization of protein stores

protein stores

the mobilization of ... can help to cause anorexia and weight loss during the acute inflammation process

Lymphadenopathy and or splenomegaly

.... are two symptoms associated in the acute inflammation process in response to an infectious disease because these are sites of higher immune cell activity

acute phase reaction

the .... is another systemic effect of acute inflammation in which we see increased fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA) protein in the blood, as well as decreased albumin, and a leukocyte left shift

left shift

a ... in the leukocyte count means that in order to fight infection, body is spending out some leukocytes (neutrophils) that are not fully developed yet into the blood to try to have a greater immune response (so over recruiting neutrophils)

fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA) protein

increased ..... all indicate a systemic acute phase reaction

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