Hormones are transported inon blood in 2 ways: _____ are not attached to a carrier protein. These last from a few minutes to less than 1 hour and are inactivated when they diffuse out of blood and bind to receptors, are absorbed and broken down by liver/kidney cells, or broken down by enzymes in plasms/interstitial fluids. Amino acid derivatives (except thyroid hormones) and peptide hormones are transported int his way
This type of hormone transportation: _____ are attached to a carrier protein. These last much longer (protected by the carrier protein). Steroids and thyroid hormones are transported mostly as hormones bound to carrier proteins
The ______ endocrine organs are: Hypothalamus, Pituitary gland, Pineal gland, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid gland, Pancreas, and Adrenal gland
The ______ endocrine organs are: Thymus, Heart, Kidneys, Gonads (testes-male, ovaries-female), Adipose tissue
The _______, located about the pituitary gland, coordinates the activities or the nervous sytem and endocrine systems. Controls the endocine system by secreting regulatory hormones to control anterior pituitary, production of endocrine hormones ADH and oxytonin (released into circulation by the posterior pituitary), and Autonomic Nervous System centers that control endrocrine cells in the adrenal medullae (inside adrenal glands) via sympathetic innervation.
The hypothalamus controls the endocrine system by secreting regulatory hormones to control anterior pituitary. _______ hormones stimulate hormone production in anterior pituitary
The hypothalamus controls the endocrine system by secreting regulatory hormones to control anterior pituitary. _______ hormones inhibit synthesis/secretion of pituitary hormones
The pituitary gland is also called the ______
The pituitary gland (hypophysis) is connected to the hypothalamus by a stalk called the _____
The pituitary gland has 2 parts: the anterior pituitary is also known as ________
The pituitary gland has 2 parts: the posterior pituitary is also known as ________
In the anterior pituitary, endocrine cells are surrounded by a capillary network- forms part of the hypophyseal ____ system. The hypophyseal ____ system connects hypothalamus to anterior pituitary. ( hypothalamus releases inhibitating or releasing hormones into 1st capillary bed, they travel down to the portal veins to 2nd capillary bed in the anterior pituitary, at the anterior pituitary, hormoes stiulate or inhibit endocrine cell secretions.
The anterior pituitary produces ____ hormones.
Four of the anterior pituitary hormones are _____ hormones, meaning that they control other endocrine glands.
thyroid stimulating hormone TSH
This anterior pituitary hormone is a tropic hormone. It is also known as thyrotropin, stimulates thyroid to secrete thyroid hormone
adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH
This anterior pituitary hormone is a tropic hormone. It stimulates adrenal cortex to release glucocoriticoids to control glucose metabolism. (The release of this hormone from the anterior pituitary is controlled by corticotropin releasing hormone CRH from hypothalamus. Increase in glucocorticod controls CRH and ____ production: negative feedback
follicle stimulating hormone FSH
This anterior pituitary hormone is a tropic hormone. Gonadotropin that promotes egg/follicle development in females, secretion of estrogen, supports sperm production in testes in males. (controlled by gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH from hypothalamus. Negative feedback by inhibin (peptide hormone secreted by tests/ovaries)
luteinizing hormone LH
This anterior pituitary hormone is a tropic hormone. Induces ovulation, secretion of estrogens and progesterone by ovaries in females; stimulates interstitial cells to produce testosterone in testes for males.
This is an anterior pituitary hormone. Stimulates mammary gland development, milk productiion in females; may regulate androgen production in males. (controlled by prolactin releasing PRF and prolactin inhibiting PIH hormone from hypothalamus
growth hormone GH
This is an anterior pituitary hormone. Also known as somatotropin, stimulates cell growth/replication, accelerates protein synthesis, mobilizes energy stores. (regulated by growth hormone releasing hormone GH-RH, and growth inhibiting hormone GH-IH from hypothalamus
melanocyte stimulating hormone MSH
This is an anterior pituitary hormone. Stimulates melanocytes in skin to produce melanin in organisms other than primates. Produced in humans during fetal development, in young children, pregnant women, diseases.
Posterior pituitary contains axons from neurons from the hypothalamus. Hormones are produced in the neurons inside the hypothalamus and transported to the posterior pituitary through the _____. Hormones are released from the axon terminals into a capillary bed in posterior pituitary.
antidiuretic hormone ADH
This is a posterior pituitary hormone. its released in response to rise in blood osmotic pressure of fall in blood volume/pressure. Effect is to decrease water lost in urine (concentrates urine), vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels. Hormone is restrained by alcohol
This is a posterior pituitary hormone. Stimulates smooth muscle contractions in uterus during labor/delivery and lactation (after delivery) in females. Stimulates smooth muscle contractions in uterus/vagina in females, and in sperm duct and prostate gland in males. These hormone levels rise sexual arousal and peak during orgasm in both sexes. "milk let down" reflex- when hormone secretion in response to sucking to release milk from breasts