APUSH American Rev Test

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Enlightenment (18th century)

period in which people began to value reason, natural law, and progress; adopted optimistic, positive views over potential for human improvement, began adopting more deistic views, and utilized new scientific discoveries to benefit improvement of communities

Isaac Newton (1642-1727)

-English physicist who explained how gravitation ruled the universe
-Appealed to educated by demonstrating the harmony of natural laws; stimulated others to search for rational (scientific) principles in other areas

John Locke

English philosopher who wrote "essay concerning human understanding" (1690); Led people to embrace "reasonable" or "rational" religion and argue that the existence of God was a harmony and order of nature→ god was merely a rational Creator who didnt intervene
Wrote about governments: social contract theory→give up some freedom to maintain order and have rights protected; discussed reasons for government

Benjamin Franklin

Moved to philadelphia, which was becoming a growing hub for scientists; published Poor Richard's Almanack and made enough money to retire; not very religious
Devoted himself to science and searched for ways to benefit the community-->built libraries, fire dept, schools
sought practical applications of science-->inventions
Est. American Philosophical Society (1743) which blossomed into an intercolonial network of amateur scientists-->corresponded with the Royal Society in London, demonstrating how the enlightenment strengthened ties b/w colonial and british elites

Deism

Belief in the existence of a supreme being, God, who is the creator of the universe but does not intervene thereafter
Franklin, Jerfferson, Thomas Paine (all believers of this) all believed that where the Bible conflicted with reason, reason should be followed

Great Awakening (1739-1743)

A protestant revival that stressed human's sinful nature and need for repentance; faith in god is key
spread across all levels of class, gender, race
ministers (such as whitefield + edwards) preached in very emotional sermons
eventually led to splits in many church congregations; more religious tolerance, establishment of schools (as the people with different beliefs didnt want to share schools), slaves/indians christianized, women granted more church participation

Jonathan Edwards

Congregationalist who led a revival (Great Awakening) at Northampton, MA: his sermons epitomized the idea that humans are sinful creatures who need to repent

George Whitefield

Powerful revivalist who came from Britain in 1739; His sermons could apparently cause crowds to swoon at the sound of his eloquent speech and charisma, and even Franklin to empty his pockets to him: his sermons inspired thousands to seek salvation and even leave their congregational churches

Old Lights

rationalists: dominated Anglican, Presbyterian, and congregational churches; great conflict with the revivalists

New lights

revivalists: their views differed from rationalists, and their ministers began to draw out people from congratations into new churches, causing many rival branches to form; emphasized piety as key to god's grace

Effects of conflict b/w New lights and Old lights

-Decline in influence of Quakers, Anglicans, and Congregationalists→ weakening of officially established denominations
-Founding of new colleges since Old and New lights wanted to be separate
-Emphasis on piety as key to Gods grace appealed to Africans and NAs→ black Protestantism for some slaves and free blacks who joined white churches
-White women gained more religious prominence and could lead prayers and discussion groups, and even speak and vote in church meetings (Sarah Osborn)
-Blurred denominational differences among protestants→emphasized Protestants common experiences and promoted coexistence of denominations

Ohio Valley (prior to 7yrwar)

French began building a chain of forts in 1753→Viginians sent toops under Washington to persuade or force the French to leave, but failed, since the NAs refused to support him

George Washington (pre 7yrwar)

failed at ambushing French in the OV, NA drove the Virginian troops away; French diplomat was killed --> started the 7yrwar in Nov., 1754

Fort Necessity

Washington's failed fort located in open space, on lower ground, resulting in poor security and flooding

Fort Duquesne

British General Edward Braddock was dispatched to seize this fort after the start of the war -->1755 French ambushed Braddock, killed him & many Brits

Albany Congress

Delegates from 7 colonies and Iroquois tribe met in Albany, NY where the colonists desired to negotiate a treaty with the Iroquois to drive French from Ohio valley and defensive measures to take against french; Problems: Iroquois were allies of English under Covenant Chain, but also bound by the Grand Settlement of 1701 stating they had to remain neutral in any Anglo-French war; Iroquois also suspicious of colonists since they were encroaching on their territory

Albany Plan of Union (1754)

Colonial confederation based on Franklins and Hutchinson's ideas: Called for a Grand Council representing colonial assemblies, with a crown appointed executive officer who led it and coordinated military defense and Indian wars-->nothing came of it b/c it was not approved by colonial legislature

French & Indian War (= Seven Years' War)

• First battle: English lose by A LOT→under Braddock, 900 men die
• Still not yet recovered from first loss, French armed Shawnees, Delawares, and Mingos who struck at encroaching settlers in PA, MD, and VA→halted English expansion and prevented those 3 colonies from going to war against France
• More losses for the british ensued, until the Iroquois, angered at bad treatment from French and believing the French were gaining too decisive an advantage abandoned the French in 1758→many NAs withdrew from fighting or turned to side with British
• Pitt took control of military→recruited lots of colonists to fight→began winning lots of battles→French resistance ends in 1760
• After peace negotiations, in 1763, sign the treaty of Paris

Edward Braddock

British General who tried to seize Fort Duquesne, expecting quick success. However, French, Canadians, and Indians led a surprise attack on Braddock's troops, killing 900 soldiers and Braddock himself→disastrous loss and rough start to the war

turning the tide for the Brits (in 7yrwar)

Things begin to change after Pitt's decision to recruit colonial soldiers-> Amherst captured Fort Duquesne and Louisbourg in 1758 and drove French from NY
In 1759, Quebec fell after Wolfe defeated Montcalm→French resistence ends in 1760

role of William Pitt

Took control of military→reinvigorated British patriotism thorught empire, becoming the most popular wartime hero; showed what Americans+English could accomplish when united
Used colonial soldiers, provided them with perks for joining→40,000+ toops joined
Began winning lots of battles and eventually French resistance ended in 1760

Acadians (cajuns)

After French were kicked out, these French-Americans were ordered (1755) to swear loyalty to Britain and not to bear arms for France
Refused to take oath→Driven from homes, dispersed among colonies or sent to France/French colonies→anti-French, anti-catholoic prejudice→Louisiana where they became Cajuns
Ethnic cleansing!

Treaty of Paris (1763)

Ended French-Indian war:
• France gave up all its lands and claims east of Mississippi
• Spain ceded Florida to Britain
• Treaty of San Ildefonso: Louisiana given to Spain
• Russians continue to expand a bit
• French hang on to Haiti

7yr wartime tensions

• British complained of colonial troops, disapproving of their lack of loyalty (stopped fighting if they weren't paid enough); British were annoyed that colonists wouldn't provide food and shelter to british, and colonists didn't like officers' arrogant manners; Colonists profited enormously from war, while British went deep into war-debt
• Colonial soldiers thought British officers treated them terribly; Quakers (pacifists) refused to vote in support of war effort; Many opposed quartering of British troops, saying it was an encroachment on English liberties;Colonists, too went into debt, and their indebtedness to the British grew, causing some to accuse the British of deliberately plotting to enslave colonists; George III...

George III (1760-1820)

This King was determined to have a strong influence on government policy, but he was not suited for building political coalitions or pursuing consistent policies
Made frequent abrupt changes in gov leadership that destabilized politics in Britain→worsened colonial relationships

Neolin

When the NAs grew worried that Brits would treat them as subjects rather than allies, this religious profit urged all tribes to unify and to take back their land and live on it as they had before the Europeans-->Pontiacs war

Pontiac's War

Indians throughout the Ohio-great lakes region; spring and summer of 1763, indians sacked 8 British forts and besieged 4 others->Over the next 6 months, small pox, food/amunition shortages, and accepting that French would not return to help them led them to make a peace treaty with Britain
(Though not a military victory, had some political concessions)

Proclamation of 1763

Recognized existing Indian land titles everywhere west of the "proclamation line" until a time when tribes agreed to cede the land to British through treaties
Problems:
-Colonists weren't fans because they thought it slowed their expansion and subordinated their western claims; "threatened their liberty and blocked expansion onto Indian lands" ☹
-A standing army that cost half a million $ per year had to be maintained to enforce the line

writs of assistance controversy

in order to prevent colonists from trading with French in the West Indies, the royal gov of MA allowed revenue officers to employ this search warrant to seize illegally imported goods and enter any ship/building where smuggled items may be hidden; required no evidence, so many called it unconstitutional; violations of their rights as Englishman based on the British constitution→however, british had no tangible constitution

James Otis & the British Constitution

Boston merchants hired this dude as a lawyer to challenge the constitutionality of the writs of assistance
Before the MA supreme court in 1761, he argued against the writs, but the Chief Justice ruled against him
British constitution wasn't a written document: collection of customs and accepted principles that guaranteed certain rights to citizens
Most assumed that anything parliament ruled went with the constitution, and that they could alter it however they pleased
he said parliament possessed no authority to violate the rights of Englishmen→challenged parliamentary authority

Sugar Act (1764)

Goal: to raise revenues to help offset britain's military expenses in NA, ending the exemption of colonial trade from revenue-raising measures
-Got rid of the Navigation acts which weren't profiting
-Amended the Molasses act of 1733→people didn't want to pay added taxes so they just tried to smuggle in French molasses
-Complicated requirements for shipping colonial goods: needed tons of documents to ensure legality
-Disregarded traditional English protections for fair trial: judges had financial incentives to find defendents guilty b/c they could keep some of the confiscated cargo
-Vigorously enforced
-Until 1766, americans kept smuggling to avoid tax, so Brits lowered it to a penny, finally raising lots of $

Molasses Act (1733)

Last of the navigation Acts; taxed foreign (French west Indian) molasses and rum entering the mainland colonies at sixpence per gallon

vice-admiralty courts

Smuggling cases related to the sugar act had to be heard here, where a British-appointed judge gave the verdict (instead of a colonial one, in which juries decided)

Stamp Act (1765)

Passed by British parliament: colonists had to use special stamped (watermarked) paper for newpapers, customs documents etc→taxed colonists heavily, since parliament believed they were being tax too lightly
-Violators faced prosecution in vice-admiralty courts
-Raise revenue for the crown, affecting most levels of society (not just merchants/sailors like the sugar act did)
-William Pit objected, but Grenville (british prime minister) approved

internal taxes

a duty levied directly on property, goods, and government services within the colonies; affected most levels of people, designed to raise revenue for crown (stamp act)

external taxes

duty levied on imports, intending to regulate trade; affecting mainly merchants and sailors (sugar act)

virtual representation

All members of Parliament stood above the narrow interests of their constituents and each considered the welfare of all subjects when deciding issues→british subjects and colonies were represented by all members of parliament

American ideas about Parliament

-Why are colonists subject to British revenue bills when they already tax themselves through their own elected assemblies?
-Believed their own assemblies exercised legislative powers equivalent to the House of commons
-Didn't feel parliament represented them; didn't think the virtual representation could extend to the coloniests
-Believed they should alone be able to tax their people, but still have to comply to laws (like navigation acts) passed by parliament
-Thought the act demonstrated parliaments indifference over the colonists interests and the shallowness of the theory of virtual representation

Patrick Henry

Virgina lawyer and planter who urged the Virginia House of Burgesses to adopt seven strongly worded resolutions denying parliament's power to tax colonists→led many colonies to pass resolutions against the act, grounded in constitutional arguments though, avoiding this dude's inflammatory language
His words had an impact outside elite circles, esp. in boston→loyal nine est. to fight it

Loyal Nine

Group of middle-class artisans and small buisiness owners→saw stamp distributors as the laws weak link, and were determined to pressure them into resigning so that british would abolish stamp act

why does Boston lead the way in opposing taxes?

• The boston port suffered a ton from the sugar act's trade restrictions; shipbuilding industry doing much worse than NY and PA; output of rum and sugar had fallen in half
• British impressment (forced recruitment) of fishermen for the naval service undermined the fishing industry→unemployment→increased local taxes for poor relief→people lost businesses and grew poorer, and those who remained employed struggled with the rising prices and taxes
• A big fire in 1760 left 1 of 10 homeless
• Resented the elite who had gained fortunes while they suffered→blamed british officials for their hard times
• Boston crowds protested forcefully against imperial officials; Attacked a builiding of Oliver's, demolishing it→he resigned the next day; Demoloished an elegant home of Hutchingson, who they saw as a symbol of the royal policies crippling boston's economy

Andrew Oliver

Boston's stamp distributor: Loyal nine led a menacing group to attack his house, eventually leading him to resign

Sons of Liberty

Groups similar to the loyal nine called themselves this and began forming throughout the colonies
They sought to prevent outbreaks like the assaults on hunthinson's mansion
They didn't want to alienate all wealthy opponents of the stamp act, so they focused their demonstrations against property and left avenues of escape for their victims, so as not to completely disregard their deference to "superiors"; forbade folowers to carry weapons so that they wouldn't have any human casualties

Stamp Act Congress (1675)

Representatives of 9 colonial assemblies met and decided that: parliament lacked authority to levy taxes outside Britain and to deny any person a jury trial
Hated on most tax collectors

role of colonial elites

These colonists wanted to prevent an explosive situation from getting out of hand→supported the moderate Sons of Liberty over more radical groups
-Expressed opposition through Stamp act congress
-Had colonial legistatures restore normal business
-Feared that chaos would break, esp if british troops came over to enforce the stamp act, so they decided to boycott british goods in 1765→other city businessmen soon followed suit

repeal of Stamp Act---why?

• Most tax collectors refused to collect taxes, so the legislators tried threatening them by withholding pay
• Merchants obtained sailing clearances to leave ports→courts and harbors started functioning again
• Colonists boycotted british goods, putting the british economy in danger of recession→panicked English businessmen tried to convince parliament that the stamp act wasn't working

Declaratory Act (1766)

Parliament revoked the stamp act, but passed this act, which affirmed parliamentary power to legislate for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever"
Colonists however just thought it was to compensate for repealing stamp acts and not actually enforce it, but parliament actually meant that they were subject to all parliamentary laws, including taxes

John Locke: natural rights & social contract

"natural rights"=life, liberty and property→social contract under which they formed governments to protect individiual rights
if a government encroached on those rights, it broke its contract with the ppl who could then resisst the gov

oppositionists

English political writers
-"Country party": how they referred to themselves; feared that the power hungry "Court party" (parliament) were gaining absolute power for themselves by exploiting their role close to the king
-felt that recent prime ministers had exploited the treasury's resources to bribe politicians/voters; parliament members no longer represented the true interest of the people
-thought that elites were using a corrupt parliament to gain abs power for themselves: "conspiracy against liberty"

conspiracy theories

conspiracy that British were trying to insight revellion in the colonies and to "enslave" them thorugh excessive taxes, impostition of officials/judges/army
-joseph warren

role of Protestant clergy

wove resistance to biritsh authority into sermons: protect god-given liberty

Quartering Act (1765) & N.Y.

• ordered colonial legislatures to pay for certain goods needed by soldiers stationed within their respective borders→needed inexpensive barracks and other supplies
• indirect tax: obligated assemblies to raise revenue
• NY refused to comply b/c so many soldiers were stationed there→anti American feeling in parliament who were bitter after withdrawing the stamp act→passed NY suspending act, which would delay the assembly until it appropriated funds
• Interfered with American claims to self governance!

Townshend Duties (aka Revenue Act of 1767)

• Parliament thought that they could get around conflict over taxes by returning to external taxes, taxing their trade
• This new law taxed glass, paint, lead, paper, and tea imported to the colonies from England: purpose was to collect money for the treasury
• Tea was the only thing that produced a significant revenue; in order to make colonists continue buying things, they had to heavily reduce prices, which actually caused British to lose money
• Wanted to assert authority over colonists
• Money also went to pay royal governers→colonists wanted power of the purse, which goes away when taxes pay royal officials salaries
• Resistance may have disintegrated had the Biritish not overacted to the circular letters

John Dickinson's Letters from a farmer

This dude Published 12 essays that argued that no tax designed to produce revenue could be considered constitutional unless a people's elected reps voted for it
Help persuade opponents of the Stamp Act to argue against this using same arguments

Samuel Adams

MA commissioned him: Drafted a "cicular letter' which condemned taxation without representation→ other colonies followed suit
Sought to ingnite widespread public opposition

Massachusetts circular letter

Drafted by Samuel Adams→spread through colonies; but parliament saw it as an act of rebellion and told MA assembly to disown its letter, and forbade other colonial assemblies to endorse it (consequently, colonists embraced the letters)

nonimportation & nonconsumption

• N______: alternative to violence that also distressed Britain's economy when they refused to import british goods; success depended on the compliance of merchants
• Boycott did significantly limit british imports and mobilized colonists into resuming resistance to British policies→ new british prime minister Lord North, in 1770 favored eliminating acts, but insisted on retaining tax on tea
• When n_______ stopped being effective, started n_________: agreeing not to drink tea→limited possible revenue to 1/6 of the expected profit
• Didn't like parliamments compromise: reminder that parliament refused to stop the taxes

Amer. Board of Customs Commissioners

• Est. in 1767 by Townshend: raised the number of port officials, funded a colonial coast guard, and provided money for secret informers, enabled informers to acquire 1/3 of the value of goods that they seized due to illegal smuggling
• Assumed those accused to be guilty until they could prove otherwise
• Provoked retaliation

customs racketeering

Basically, british informers participated in legalized piracy, by seizing colonists goods without any evidence

Liberty incident

• Customs agents were hated in Boston, so it prompted their retaliation in 1768
• Hancock came into the harbor with a shipment of Madeira wine: when customs officials inspected the ship, they noticed the ship carried only about ¼ of its carrying capacity→suspected that cargo was smuggled out during the middle of the night→accused hancock of smuggling
• Prompted by the seizure (on a technicality) of Boston merchant John Hancock's sloop liberty, when customs officials fined him 9,000 euros (so much more than he actually owed by evading taxes on a shipment of Madeira wine)
• A crowd of boys and negroes tried to prevent the towing of his ship and then began assaulting customs agents→mob rallied through the streets and drove all revenue inspectors from Boston
• British took steps to dampen colonial protests (kinda aware that customs officials were being unreasonable)→prosecutors dropped charges against hancock, fearing that if the trial was brought to England, they would take action against commissioners responsible for violating his rights→dispatched 4,000 troops to Boston, unwilling to tolerate any more violence of defiance of authority

John Hancock

One of N Americas richest merchants and a leading opponent of biritsh taxation→became a chief target of customs commissioners

American view of John Wilkes

• A London editor and member of parliament who denounced george IIIs policies→elected and kicked out of parliament
• British policies were sparking widespread protests→"wilkes and liberty!"→massacre of st. george's fields→again denied his seat in parliament→ besieged by outpourings of popular support from colonies and britian
o VAs sent him tobacco and SC contribute money to help get rid of his debts
o Maintained correspondence with sons of liberty, who haled him in a massive boston celebration after he was released
o Provided powerful reinforcement for colonists' challenges to parliament and british gov authority

Daughters of Liberty

• Could join resistance to British policies
• Sarah Osborn started daughters of liberty, a group of upperclass female partriots who helped defeat stamp act
• Nonconsumption of tea and stopped buying british cloth and clothing
• Organized spinning bees in which they helped expand domestic cloth production→evidence of American determination to forgo luxury and idelness for common defense of liberty
• Gave spinning special political virtue
• American resistance ran far deeper than a few male protesters, showing that they extended into the heart of American households

troops to Boston (1768)

• In response to the violence surround Hancock's liberty incidence, brits dispatched 4,000 troops to boston→threatened colonists liberty and was a financial burden
• Soldiers were irish catholics, which angered protestants
• Soldiers were allowed to seek employment when off duty, taking colonists jobs→more unemployment
• An 11-yr boy was killed, not by a soldier→united the community against british, and the soldiers became an easy target→Crispus Attucks led a crowd to a guard post and began throwing objects at soldiers, who then shot into the crowd

tactics of Sam Adams

Served as the British soldier's attorney; he opposed the crowd actions→appealed to jury by saying the soldiers had been provoked by a group of unrespectable people (slaves, poor)→jury, made up of elites and middle class aquitted all but 2 of the soldiers and no soldiers suffered harsh punishment

Boston Massacre (1770)

• After a group of angry (unarmed) colonists aggravated an army guard post, the soldiers fired into the crowd
• To protect british, soldiers were isolated on a fortified island in the harbor, and Gov Hutchinson promised they would be tried→with sam adams powers of persuasion, most were aquitted
• Colonists began thinking the brit gov was bent on coercing and suppressing them through force

Crispus Attucks

A seamen of African and NA descent who led a crowd to a british guard post in protest of the 11-yr old who was killed→ threw things at officials and threatened to shoot

Gaspee incident

• In Rhode Island, colonists upset over navigation acts; the captain of a british ship was patrolling the docks, sometimes off duty→threw away colonists cargo→ship coming to the colonists docks, colonists went to burn the ship, shot (wounded) the captain
• Captain of gaspee was taking too much for the colonies, excessively using force→colonists felt their rights were being abused
• King proposes sending a royal commissioner over to investigate→colonists brought to be tried in London→no one is accused

Committees of Correspondence

• Samuel Adams persuaded Boston's town meeting to request that each MA community appoint a committee whose members would be responsible for exchanging information and coordinating measures to defend colonial rights
• Helped maintain political cooperation over a wide area, linking almost every interior community in boston→ Adams could send out messages for each local committee to read at its town meetings and debate and vote about issues
• Publicized letters written by Hutchinson that convinced colonist's suspicions of the british plot to destroy basic freedoms
• Other colonies began est. them; by 1774, a communications web linked colonial leaders for the first time since the stamp act of 1766

Paxton Boys

Conflicts over the proclamation line including:
o Believed the quakers were failing to provide them with adequate military protection
o Denied equal representation in legislature
o All NA's=racial enemies
...led settlers who were living in the backcountry to:
o 1763: armed settlers attacked 2 villages of peaceful conestoga indians, brutally killing
o 1764: they set out for Philadelphia with plans to kill Christian Indian refuges; however, gov (led by Franklin) met the armed mob at the outskirts of city and promised that the assembly would consider their grievances→boys turned home

Carolina Regulators

o unhappy backcountry settlers who wanted to redress the grievances of westerners who, underrepresented in the colonial assembly, found themselves exploited by eastern officeholders
o 1771: battle of Alamance Creek: British army defeats hundreds of regulators→cripples the colony's subsequent abilitly to resist british authority
o in another regulator conflict, the army didn't want to send in troops because they were worried the slave population might use the occasion to revolt→brits conceded to the principal demands of the regulators by establishing four new judicial circuits and allowing jury trials in newly settled areas

Tea Act (1773)

o British east India company was going into bankruptcy because no one was buying their tea→parliament passed this act, which eliminated all remainining price to consumers; also permitted the company to sell its tea directly to consumers rather than through wholesalers
o Even though the price was reduced well below the price of smuggled tea, colonists refused to buy tea
o Alarmed colonists b/c it would raise revene with which the brit gov would pay royal govs→commitees decided to prevent cargoes from being landed
o Strategy in boston failed...

Tea Party

o First ship came under the jurisdiction of the customs house, where duties had to be paid on cargo within 20 days, or they'd be seized and sold→requested for the ship to depart but hutchingson refused
o Men dressed as indians, symboloizing a virtuous, proud, and assertive American identity distinct form corrupt britiain, came with a crowd and damaged all the ships cargo

Somerset case

• MA slave, James Somerset, had gone with his master to England→ran away, then recaptured; but since slavery wasn't a system in England, he (along with the help of Quaker abolishonists) sued for his freedom
• Inspired africans to pursue freedom→ran away from masters and tried to board ships to England
• Lord Dunmore (royal governer) promised freedom to any slave enlisted in the cause of restoring royal authority→liberty to slaves

Lord Dunmore's Proclamation

• Promised freedom to slaves who fought to restore british royal authority; intended to undermine a planter-dominated society by appealing to slaves longings for freedom

Coercive (or Intolerable) Acts

Punished Boston for the Tea Party→pushed colonists toward rebellion
• Boston Port Bill: navy closed boston harbor unless the town payed for the ruined tea by June 1→short deadline ensured harbors closing→economic distress; punishes everyone-unfair
• MA Government Act: revoked MA charter and restructured the gov→very similar to a royal colony; regulated town meetings
• Administration of Justice Act (murder act): permitted any person charged with murder while enforcing royal authority in MA to be tried in England or other colonies
• Quartering Act: allowed gov to requisition empty private buildings for housing of troops

Quebec Act

• Intended to cement loyalty to Britian among conquered frenc-canadian cathlics, it retaind roman Catholicism as quebec's established religion
• Gave Canada's governors sweeping powers but est. no legislature
• Permitted property disputes to be decided by French law (no juries)
• Extened quebec's territorial claims south even though the area was designated off limits by the Proclamation of 1763

First Continental Congress

• In Philadelphia in 1774: 56 delegates met to find a way to defend their rights→Suffolk resolves
• Boycotted all british imports and threatened to halt almost all exports if reconciliation wasn't accomplished (continental association)

Suffolk Resolves

• Declared that the colonies owed no obedience to any Coervice Acts, that a provisional gov should collect all taxes, and that defensive measures should be taken in case royal troops attacked

Continental Association

• Boycott all british imports and halt most exports (see above)
• Enforced by locally elected committees of "observation" or "safety" whose members would be seizing control of American trade form the royal customs service

Galloway's Plan

• Galloway and other moderates (from middle colonies) fear the internal turmoil that would surely accompany a head on confrontation with Britain
• Adams called them "trimmers": unsuccessfully opposed nonimportaition and tried to win endorsement of this plan, which wanted an American legislature that would share the authority to tax and govern the colonies with parliament

address to George III

• Summarized the demands from the continental congress in a petition to the king: affirmed parliaments power to regulate imperial commerce, but argued that all previous parliamentary efforts to impose taxes, laws through admiraly courts, suspend assemplies and revoke charters were UNCONSITUTIONAL
• Impolored the king to end the crisis by dismissing ministers

steps toward independence

• Vigilantes compelled merchants who still traded with britian to burn imports
• Browbeat clergymen who preached pro-british sermons
• Pressured americans to adopt simpler diets/dress to relieve dependence on british imports
• Committees took on government functions by organizing volunteer military companies and extralegal legislatures→est. provincial "congresses"

Battles of Lexington & Concord (Apr 1775)

• Collected arms and gathered minutement (volunteer soldiers)→in response, gov gage sent british soldiers to seize military supplies that were stored at concord→William dawes and Paul Revere warned colonists→minutement showed up at Lexington and confronted soldiers, 8 mm and 1 rc died→british pushed on to concord where yankees men them and opened fire on them→redcoats suffered more casulaties than coloniests→many new englanders began besieging british garrison in boston
• American people aren't unified; many people oppose independence (loyalists): reluctant to fight because the birtish are a superpower (huge military and navy); don't want to go to war with their biggest trading partners
o Middle colonies reluctant; New England ready!
o Quakers don't want war
o Many new arrivals in middle colonies who don't feel like americans and have greater ties to the british empire

Second Continental Congress

• 3 weeks after battle, congress reconvened in Philadelphia: most delegates still opposed independence, so they sent a "loyal message" to George III (Olive Branch Petition)

Olive Branch Petition

• listed 3 demands:
o cease-fire at boston
o repeal of Coercive acts
o negotioations to establish guarantees of American rights
• however, colonists also established an American continental army and other things that Britain would view as rebelious

GW as head of "continental army"

• voted to est. an army at the 2nd congress in 1775 with GW as commander
• good reputation as a political and military leader; wore his militia uniform to congress meetings

Bunker Hill (or Breed's Hill)

• the petiotion reached London along with the news of the army's formation and another battle in June
• british troops attacked colonists entrenched on Breed's and Bunker hill
• succeeded in dislodging americans, but suffered much more than patriots→ many britions desired retaliation, not reconciliation→George II proclaimed New England and later other colonies in a state of rebellion and outlawed all british trade + subjected ships to seizure

Thomas Paine's Common Sense

• published in January, 1776 by Thomas Paine: told americans that:
o monarchy was an institution rooted in superstition, dangerous to liberty, and inappropriate to Americans
o king= "royal brute"; some random german farmer with no authority to rule us
o a conspiracy against American liberty was rooted in the very instutions of monarchy and empire
o America had no econmic need for the british connection
o Independence was a reality
o Linked americas awakening nationalism with a sense of religious mission
o America would be a new kind of nation found on republican values, free of oppressive European beliefs
• Sold 100,000 copies (best seller): dissolved lingering allegiance to Geroge III and great britain

Henry Knox

• After colonists captured Fort Ticonderoga, Washington (6 months later) ordered Colonel Henry Knox (army's senior artillerist) to bring the British artillery seized at Ticonderoga to reinforce the siege of boston
• They halued the weapons through snow covered mountains (one of the rev's greatest feats of endurance)→guns placed the outnumbered british in a hopeless position, forcing htem to evacuate boston on March 17, 1776

Thomas Jefferson's Declaration of Independence

• War and Paine's common sense stimulated local gatherings to pass resolutions favoring independence, but many, especially the middle colonies hesitated; south pressed for separation
• Five men, with Jefferson as the main author drafted a statement justifiying colonie's separation from England→listed 27 "injuries and usurpations" committed by George III against the colonies
• Argued that the English gov had violated its contract with colonists→colonists had the right to replace it
• Emphasis on equality of all individuals and their natural entitlement to justice, liberty, and self fulfillment; longed for a gov that would rest on neither legal privilege nor exploitation of the majority by the few
• Racial inequality: blacks and NAs
• Women were viewed below men

revolutionary for White males?

o Mindset changed drastically, seeking liberty, however government didn't change much and their assemblies still governed in largely the same way
o Not a huge social revolution; elites still hold the majority of the power
o No longer have England controlling them anymore
o Start writing rules down; what the constitution and government are
o Wanted to create a republic: role for the people based on popular consent, NOT equality

Whigs & Tories

W_____ (patriots) vs. T_____ (loyalists)
o Even more conflict between them than between partriots and britain
o Opposition by a fellow American was an unforgivable act of betrayal
Tories opposed secession from Britain; anti-revolution
o Often changed sides during war
o Independence wasn't the only way to preserve colonists constitutional rights
o Reverence for the crown; failing to defend their king→sacrifice personal honor
Both Ts and Ws opposed parliaments claim to tax the colonies

Loyalists

• Loyalist pop dependended on how many whigs had political power and could successfully convince their neighbors that Britain threatened liberty
• Only 5% of whites in New England, Virginia, and S. Carolina were likely loyalists
• Where elites and other leaders were divided or indecisive→loyalists: greatest strength in New York and New Jersey→reluctant to declare allegiance to either side
• Geographic distribution of recent British immigrants (remained closely identified with homeland: NY, GA, backcountry N. + S. Carolina=25%-40% were loyalists in 1776
• Quebecs religious and secular elites→loyalists: quebec act retained catholoicism and british rule
o British forces retained control of Canada during the war

role of Canada in the Amer. Rev.

Canadian elites were on the british side
• Continental forces under GW invaded Quebec and found support among nonelite French and English canadians→britian repulsed the invasion, and british military (supported by Canadian elites) retained control of Canada throughout the war

African-Americans & the Revolution

• Blacks prioritized their own liberation from slavery over the colonies independence→flocked to Lord Dunmores ranks, escaping from their owners during the war
o Many either died or were recaptured, but some achieved freedom and served for the Royal Army
• Some slaves from New England determined that supporting the rebels would hasten their own emancipation and equality
• Contagion of liberty

Native Americans & the Revolution

• Most powerful NA confederacies (iriqouis, creeks, cherokees) were divided during war
• Iriquois' counfil fire (a symbol of unity) died out→followed Joseph Brant in supporting Britian
• Oneidas sided with the rebels against Iroquois
• Creeks allegiances reflected earlier trade ties with Britain/ spain
• Cherokee were split between anti American militants who saw an opurtunity to drive back settlers and those who thought that cherokees best hope was to stay neutral
• New England indians were initially anti-british, but the coloniests alienated them during the war
• 2nd Treaty of paris (1783)→all land east of the Mississippi ceded to the americans→lose their land, have to deal with a new/different more expanisionist government; revolutionary but not in a good way

Joseph Brant

• Iroquois chief who led them to side with the British during war
• Led pro-british Iroquois into PA and NY frontiers in 1778, killing 700 settlers→American General Sullivan (along with Tuscaroras and Oneidas) retaliated by invading iroquios contry with 2700 continental troops, burning and killing
• Brant got revenge on Tuscaroras and Oneidas; but sullivans campaign had devastated pro-british iroquios

Advantages and problems of the british during war

Advantages:
-11 milion people in British isles outnumbered the 2.5 million colonists (1/3 of whom were slaves/loyalists)
-possessed worlds largest navy and one of its best professional armies
-well trained army with strong tradition of discipline and bravery under fire
Problems:
-army got so big that it became a huge financial burden that strained britians resources
-sea power declined after budget cuts post-1763→many ships sat awaiting repairs
-lost 43,000 men to desertion and 20,000 to disease/injuries
-marines suffered from raids by American privaters
-had to import all food and supplies from Britain→barely kept army supplied and never effectively blockaded American ports
-difficulty maintaining peoples support, since the war doubled the national debt and made people pay more taxes

advantages & problems of Americans

Advantages:
• had 220,000 troops (compared to 162,000 british), but only served short terms
• France and Spain eventually sided with them
• Only needed to prolong the revellion until britians taxpayers lost patience with the struggle
• George Washington!
Problems:
• many citizens favored the british
• miliatray challenge: men were accustomed to serving as citizen soldiers in colonial militias and weren't trained to fight pitched battles against professional armies like britains
• dependence on guerilla warfare couldn't drive out the british army
• lacked inspirational heritage and a deep pool of experienced officers who could train army appropriately
• army had difficulty attracting men for the long term

George Washington as commander-in-chief

• mistakes and defeats in Ohio balley taught him the dangers of overconfidence and need for determination; learned that American soldiers performed best when led by example and treated with respect
• resigned his commission in 1758, served the Virginia House of Burgesses: people respected him and sought his opinion→sat on the continental congress→logical choice to head continental army

the war in the Middle Colonies

• 2 General HOwes landed in New York and defeated Washington's troops in 1776→ killed/captured ¼ of troops; forced people to retreat from NY into Pensylvania→"times that try men's souls"-Paine
• As brits came towards pensylvania, Washington seized the offensive to raise armys morale→ attacked Trenton, killing Hessian Germans (soldiers under british), then attacked Peinceton and captured/killed 1/3 of british: colonists had few casualties

Trenton & Princeton

• Boosted civilian and military morale when defeat seemed inevitable
• Drove a wedge b/w NJ's 5,000 loyalists and British army
• Forced British to remove all NJ garrisons to NY in 1777→with british gone, NJs militia disarmed known loyalists, jailed their leaders, and kept a constant watch on suspected tories→most loyalists wore allegiance to Continental congress or even joined the rebels

Marquis de Lafayette

Young French aristocrat who joined GW's staff→closely connected with the French court, indicating that France might recognize American independence and declare war on Britain, but not until King Louis XVI had proof that Americans could win a major battle

Battle of Saratoga (Oct 1777)

• British troops wanted to crush American resistance in NY to isolate New England; 2 pronged assault by British and Iroquois→nothing went according to plan
• Tried to besiege colonists at fort Stanwix, but couldn't, retreating
• His force recaptured Fort Ticonderoga→but, American troops under General Horatio Gates prepared to challenge him near Saratoga
• Britih suffered 1200 casualties while failing to dislodge Americans→hopelessy outnumbered and surrounded→surrendered
• Proved to be the wars turning point→convinced France that Americans could win the war→france recognized the US→france went to war with Britian, along with spain (allied with france)
o Britain had many enemies, and no allies of it own

international aspects of the Rev.

• France acknowledge American Independen in 1778 and helped keep britian preoccupied in fighting back home, forcing them to spread troops very thin
• Spain joined as an ally of france, also hoping to win back Gibraltar from british
• Netherlands abandoned allieance with Britain, allying with Americans (trade ties): resented british domination of its trade and foreign policy→declared war on Britain in 1781
• Russia created the League of Armed Neutrality which other countries joined, and had the right to trade commodities with any nation→Briain left league members alone
• War in Spain still continued after American revoltion ended, and Frenc/Spanish invaded Jamaica→british won
• France later threatened briains presence in South India, when Mysore leaders called for the expolusion of the English nation from India
• Treaty of Paris: America became independent, Britain and france returned all territories seized from each other in the Caribbean, India, and Senegal; Britain returned Ceylon (Sri lanka) to the netherlands
• Left a volatile miz in North Atlantic→spread of repuclican ideals→disconent with monarchies across Europe
• French monarchy added to frances debts, hastening its downfall and French revolution

Valley Forge (1777-78)

• British troops invaded Philadelphia→continentals retreated 18 miles to Valley Forge
• Shortages of provisions, esp food, would undermine morale and even discipline among americans
• German soldier von Steuben arrived at valley forge and lifted troops spritis

Friedrich von Steuben

German soldier who arrived at Valley forge and became very popular among troops→motivated men; possessed adimistrative genius→in 4 months, he turned the army into a formidable fighting force

Battle of Monmouth

• When british evacuated Philadelphia, americans seized this opportunity to demonstrate their new training when it caught up to the British guard at Monmouth, NJ on the brits route to New York
• 6-hrs in 100* weather→clinton broke off contact, expecting to restart battle at daybreak, but americans were sleeping, so the brits slipped away
• extremely easy win for Britain→ended the contest for the north→clinton (brit) occupied NY

warfare in the West. . . . significance?

• Small-scale skirmishes: tensions b/w natives and land hungry settlers
• Very intense, but didn't determine the outcome of the war itself
• Significant impact on the future shape of the US

George Rogers Clark in Ohio

• In the northwest, he led 175 kentucky militia men north of the ohio river→caputred and lost Vincennes-→clark retook the French town in 1779
• British couldn't offer assistance, so there NA allies became bulnerable
• Most ohio indians resisted americans til the wars end

Gen. Sullivan & the Iroquois

Led troops into PA and NY against pro british iroquios under brant (along with tuscaroras and Oneidas)→routed brants soldiers and burned many villages→forced them to flee to Canada, many starved→devasted pro-british iroquios

shift in focus to the South

• Britain expected to acquire the flexibility needed to move its forces back and forth between the West indies and the mainland
• South looked like an easy targt→expected to seize ports with the aid of loyalist and move back towards the north
how is the war different there?
• Fewer loyalists than they expected→after cherkoee attacked the Carolina frontier, numberous tories switched sides to defend their homes
• Exodus of slaves form plantations→british attempted to return runaway slaves to loyalist masters, but it didn't work, cauising loyalists to abandon british
• Ongoing cycle of revenge, retribution, and retaliation among whites

Yorktown (1781)

French fleet landed toops near Yorktown→lafayette and small force of continentals joined the French; GW arrived with his army from NY→6,000 british greatly outnumbered by 8800 americans and 7800 french; brits stood them off for 3 weeks til they surrendered in 1781→forced Britain to negoitiate for peace

Treaty of Paris (1783)

• Britain recognized American independence and agreed to withdraw all royal troops from America
• Britain returned East and West Florida to Spain, though they would dispute the northern boundary
• State govs refused to compensate loyalists for property losses and erected barrriers against british creditors' attempts to collect prewar debts→british then refues to honor treaty peledges to abandon forts in the northwest and to return American owened slaves
• Treaty didn't mention NAs, leaving them to deal with Americans on their own
• War killed 5% of people in the colonies and drove 1/6 of the loyalists, 1000s of slaves and NAs into exile
• Treaty didn't address government or type of society

Egalitarianism

• Anti-british movement had persuaded elites to maintain the appearance of equality with common people: definition: "people are equal and deserve equal rights and oppurtunities"
• High ranking military officials showed respect to the ordinary men serving under them→ soldiers would only follow commands when they weren't addressed as inferiors
o Some officers, however insisted that soldiers remain disciplined and subordinate under all circumstances
• War subtly democratized americans' political assumptions→virtue and sacrifice defined citisens worth independently of wealth; however, equality didn't extend to propertyless men, women, or nonwhites
• Though, the actual distribution of wealth didn't change

erosion of class differences

• Elites wore the same homespun clothing as poor, and dressed in the same uniforms when fighting in war
• Lower ranking soldiers were well respected
• Voters still elected wealthy to office, but only if they didn't flaunt money or weren't condescending to poor
• War undermined the belif that wealth/distinguished background=special claim to public office

women & the Rev.

how did they participate?
• Served military units on both sides by cooking, laundering, and nursing wounded
• Some disguised themselves as men and joined the fighting (Deborah Sampson)
• Remained at home and managed families, households, farms, and businesses
• Esther de Berdte Reed and Sally Franklin Bache organized a campaign among Philadelphia women to raise money for troops
what did they gain?
• Confidence in their abilities to think and act on matters traditionally reserved for men
• Challenge gender relations

Abigail Adams

Sent a letter to her husband asking for him not to forget the Ladies, otherwise it would foment a rebellion and they wont be bound by any laws that they have no voice in creating→John Adams disregarded her plea as yet another effort to extend rights/power to the unworthy→women were viewed as subortinate

Judith Sargent Murray

essayist and poet; 1790 "On the Equality of the Sexes": contended that the genders had equal intellectual ability and deserved equal education; urged women to improve their minds rather than rush into marriage

African-Americans & the Rev.

how did they participate?
• 100s of blacks drawn into New England militia and continental units→in 1775, GW banned backs from serving→armys need for personell:6 wks later, free black slaves may join
• All black regiment created in RI; slaves' masters would be compensated if their slaves enlisted→ helped out in Yorktown victory
what did they gain?
• Many more people began opposing slavery: Quakers freed many slaves→MA, RI, CT, VT, PA began phasing out slavery between 1777 and 1784, and NY and NJ did so later→took steps that weakend the institution such as imosing laws saying that children born to slaves could go free after a certain age
• Even some more slaves in the south went free, though slavery was still popular
• When free, they faced a future as destitute, 2nd class citizens, since whites were reluctant to hire them and pay equal wages
• Some states granted some civil rights to freee blacks→ could participate in colonial elections if they met the property qualification
• More freedom of movement
• Equal treatment in court hearings for free blacks

Prince Hall

• Free black (born a slave) who took a leading role among boston blacks protesting slavery
• Formed a separate Afr-Amer Masonic lodge, spreading a movement to northern cities and becoming an important source of community support for blacks
• In 1786, petitioned the MA legislature to enable the blacks to return to Africa→doesn't work

Phyllis Wheatley

Poet and slave who wrote several poems linking liberty sought by whites with a plea for liberty of slaves

Native Americans & the Rev.

how did they participate?
• Regardless of which side they'd fought on (or if they even fought at all), they suffered
what did they gain?
• Suffered a lot; many communities were uprooted with the territorial expansion onto NA landholdings→ newly arrived whites spread diseases, unfavorable farming practices
• Incorporated European culture with their own, though refused to give up on older ways altogether
o Participated in American econmy by working for wages or selling food, crafts, and other products
o Christianity
o Wanted to retain control of their homelands and ways of life

forming new state gov'ts:

traditional or revolutionary?
• Bicameral legislatures with an elected lower house (assembly) and an upper house (council) appointed by gov or chosen by assembly→mirrored parliaments division into House of Commons and House of Lords
• Property requirements for voters and elected officials, b/c it was believed that property owners had the financial means and education to vote freely and responsibly
• Equal division of leislative seats among all counties, regardless of pop (except Pennsylvania)
• State constitutions (quite radical)→written documents requiring popular ratification, only amended by voters; written compacts that defined and limited rulers' powers; bill of rights
• Annual elections (usually)
• Relieved governors of most appointive powers, no vetoing, subject to impeachment→constitutions gave governors little do do
• Executive branch weakened, more power in legislatures (responsive to the will of voters)→gradually, elites reasserted desires for centralized authority based on wealthy people-→unicameral legislatures
republican or democratic?
• Described selves as republicans: gov entrusted to virtuous leaders; delicately balance the interests of different classes to prevent one group from gaining too much power
• Believed democracy was mob rule, with power in the hands of the uneducated

*disestablishment

Take away the established churches

*VA Statute of Religious Freedom (1786)

Thomas Jefferson: There shouldn't be any state religion, freedom of conscience

Articles of Confederation

• John Dickinson sent out in 1777 for ratification in 1781
• Reserved to each state (not natl gov) its sovereignty, freedom and independence; confederacy of states with separate governments
• Natl gov was a single chamber congress elected by state legislatures (each state had one vote)
• 7 states in agreement to pass minor legislation; 9 for wars, treaties, money-related things
• No natl executive or judicial branch→though, all states must recognize each others judicial decisions

financial troubles of the nation

• Huge debts after the war→borrowed funds from abroad and printed its own paper money (continentals)→massive inflation
• Natl gov appointed Morris to deal with debt, but little happened because not all 13 states agreed to proposals
• New England was hit hard, esp since trade with Britain wasn't generating much money→the terrible soil and landscape prevented them from growing much; large pop→economic depression
• Middle colonies did okay b/c they were less dependent on british trade; prospered from raising export prices during Europe's famine→largely recovered from debt by 1788
• South was unable to have their cash crops return to prewar export levels→didn't produce as much→tried shifting to wheat and hemp but it didn't help much

Robert Morris

• Wealthy Philadelphia merchant appointed as Superintendent of Finance in 1781 to manage debts
• Proposed an import duty of 5% to pay off war debts, but didn't pass b/c RI didn't agree
• Insisted that US needed sources of revenue independent of the states to attract capital and est a strong natl gov→Morris and Hamilton engineered the Newburgh Conspiracy

Newburgh Conspiracy

• Morris and Hamilton secretly persuaded some army officers to threaten a coup detat unless the treasury obtained the taxation authority needed to raise their pay
• Before it was carried out, however, GW ended the plot by delivering a speech to army officers convincing them not to proceed
• Morris willingness to take such a risk demonstrated the perilous financial straits and vulnerability of political institutions

Northwest Ordinances of 1785 & 1787

• Congress established procedures for surveying land north of the ohio river (designated the northwest territory), and in 1787, defined the steps for the creation and admission of new states
• Forbade slavery while the region remained a territory (could be legalized after statehood)
• Outlined 3 stages for admitting states into the union
o Congress would appoint a territorial governor + judges
o Once it had 4000 adult males, voters would approve a territorial constitution and elct a legislature
o With 60000 ppl, voters would ratify a state constitution, that congress would approve b4 granting statehood
• Layed out procedures for settling and establishing govs, served as models for organizing territories farther west; precedent for banning slavery

issues in the Northwest

• Territory seemed to offer enough land to guarantee property to American citizens for centuries→however, most of this "available" territory belonged to NAs who were struggling to preserve their own independence
• Some NA leaders gave in to American pressure to avoid threats of war
o Iroquois lost about half their land in the 2nd treaty of fort stanwix (1784)
o Delaware and Shawnee leaders were obliged to recognize american soverighty over their lands in the treaties of Fort Mcintosh (1785) and fort finey (1786)
• NAs had confidence that the brits would provide arms and ammunition needed to defy the US; brits had refused to abandon 7 NW forts within US boundaries→brits hoped to reclaim lands with NA help
• Joseph brant visited King George and helped organize NW NAs into a military alliance to exclude confederation citizens north of the Ohio R.-->couldn't win support from Iroquios
• With NAs disunified, setttlers organized militia raids into the NW territory, forcing many NAs to evacuate→settlers sailed on the Mayflower down the Ohio, settling in territory (Marietta)

issues in the Southwest

• Spain and NA allies wanted to keep settlers off lands; see below
• Spain sought to prevent American infiltration by denying settlers permission to ship their crops down the Mississippi R to New Orleans→dilema because brits had promised americans rights to this in the treaty of paris which spain didn't sign→spans closed New Orleans to American commerce→Jay Gardoqui treaty
• Although only a few settlers actually consqpired with spain against US when Spain bribed them with offers of citizenship, it revealed the new nations weak authority in newly settled areas

Alexander McGillivray

• Creek leader and ally of Spanish
• Creeks had surrented territory to Georgia in some fraudulent treeaties that he wanted to regain→ negotiated treaty with Spanish so that spans would give NAs weapons to defend themselves→creeks expelled whites in disputed lands and Georgia politicians let creeks keep their land

Jay-Gardoqui Treaty (1786)

• Spain and US negotiated this, opening Spanish markets to American merchants and renounced spainsh claims to disputed lands
• At the cost of postponing American exporters' access to New Orleans for 20 yrs→congress rejected it

who's growing dissatisfied with Articles?

• Bondholders merchants and shippers: wanted a central gov with enough power to secure trading priveleges abroad and to strengthen their atlantic economy
• Land speculators/western settlers: wanted gov to pursue a more activist policy against spain, brits, and NAs in west
• Urban artisans: gov that would impose uniformly high tariffs to protect them from foreign competitors
• Wealthy elites: gov that would crack down on debtos and delinquent taxpayers
• Small farmers who couldn't pay off their debts in hard currency (specie-gold and silver coins)

Shays's Rebellion (1786)

• Small farmers who couldn't pay off debts help public meetings and discussed the "suppressing of tyrannical gov"
• Farmers led by Daniel shays shut down courts in 5 counties and in 1787, marched on a federal arsenal at Springfield, MA
• Toops funded by boston elites beat back the rebels and defeated movement
• However, sympathizers of shays won control of MA legislature in elections, and cut taxes and secured a pardon for Shays
• Rallying cry for advocates of a stronger central gov→encouraged elite nationalists into action from above→delegates assembled at Annapolis Maryland to discuss amendments to the Articles of Confederation

Annapolis Convention (1786)

General convention to propose amendments to the Articles of confederation

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