Bio 105 Midterm

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Mitochondria are thought to have evolved from free-living bacteria that were incorporated into eukaryotic cells by endosymbiosis. Which of the following pieces of evidence for this hypothesis is INCORRECT?

Mitochondria can survive and reproduce independently when removed from the host cell.

The lysosome:

digests and recycles cellular waste products and consumed materials.

The reddish projections in the figure above, shown on the outside of a cell membrane, are called:

cilia

What are the three types of endocytosis?

phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis

Mammalian cells take in many molecules including hormones, antibodies, and blood proteins. This process is coordinated by proteins that recognize their specific target molecule. This process is best described as:

receptor-mediated endocytosis

Which of the following organelles is responsible for degrading waste within the cell?

lysosome

The rough ER is the site of protein synthesis and the smooth ER is the site of lipid synthesis. What is the third compartment of the endomembrane system and what is that compartment's function?

Golgi apparatus: finishes the processing of the proteins and sorts them for export out of the cell

If the solution surrounding a cell contains the same amount of solute as the cytoplasm the osmotic condition is said to be:

isotonic.

Which statement is NOT part of the modern cell theory?

The first cell was a eukaryotic cell.

Which of the following would lead to an increased risk of spontaneous mutation?

none of the above

During transcription, at the point where the DNA strand being copied has an adenine, _______________ is added to the _______________.

a uracil; mRNA

When a triplet of bases in the coding sequence of DNA is GCA, the corresponding codon for the mRNA that is transcribed from it is:

CGU

Alternate versions of a gene are called _______________. They can code for different ________________ of the same character.

alleles; traits

The expression of a gene to form a polypeptide occurs in two major steps. What are these two steps in their correct chronological order?

transcription and then translation

What is the most common reason why DNA analyses overturn incorrect criminal convictions?

DNA evidence is much more reliable an identifier of an individual than eyewitness accounts.

The first cloned vertebrate was Dolly, a sheep, in:

1997

Genotype is to phenotype as:

recipe is to cookie.

During transcription the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a RNA molecule by:

RNA polymerase.

Most genes come in alternative forms called:

alleles

Some forms of dwarfism in children can be treated by ___________________ made by recombinant DNA techniques.

human growth hormone

Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body cannot produce ________________, a chemical that allows cells to take up and break down sugar from the blood.

insulin

Which of the following is the correct order of nucleotide substitution rates among different organisms from lowest to greatest?

elephants; humans; bacteria; viruses

From DNA to protein involves which series of events?

transcription, translation

The ___________________ is a project to decode the three billion base pairs in the human genome.

Human Genome Project

Which of the following choices aims to determine what gene products do?

functional genomics

The full set of an individual organism's DNA is called its:

genome.

Scientists have inserted a gene from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis into corn plants in order to:

increase the corn's resistance to insects.

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