Chapter 5: Social Structure, Social Groups and Social organization : Sociology

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Status

Socially defined position someone occupies. -Status set, Ascribed status(Born with and come into the group with you have little control ex: gender), Achieved status (Earned ex: CEO and Dr. bachelor degrees), Master Status (Overrides the other things we are ex: the guy down the street.)

What are the 5 types of intentional social interaction

○ Exchange: goods, ideas, actions
○ Cooperation : equals cohesion and unity
○ Competition: To achieve or get better
○ Conflict: can be healthy
○ Coercion: Forcing you to do something, Pressure to do something

Primary Groups

○ Small, informal groups
○ Interact in a personal direct and intimate way
○ Your family, Close friends and some neighbors

Secondary Groups

○ Small or large formal groups
○ Interact in a reserved, detached(informality keeps a distance), and purposeful(intentionally doing something ) way
○ Ex: Committees, sports teams and college classes, your place (a professional relationship)

Dyad

Smallest group for interaction only two people

Non social Groups

○ Categorical groups
§ Group large # of people common characteristics (by a certain type or status)
□ Hispanic Americans ( day parade and ripping women shirts off after parade was over)
□ U.S. citizens with ties to either Latin America or Spain.
○ Statistical Groups (Used by statisticians and sociologist)
§ 10% of males in the US
□ Between ages 16 and 24 have not graduated from high school
○ Limited Groups:
§ Minimal interaction
□ No personal levels
§ Unconcerned with attitudes and feelings!!
□ Two types
® Aggregate!
◊ All Together in one place
◊ Limited interaction
} Ex: high school assembly, riding on a bus very sporadic someone might say hello
® Associational
◊ Limited socialization
◊ Could be large like Sierra club example from book
◊ Very limited interactions

Categorical groups

§ Group large # of people common characteristics (by a certain type or status)
□ Hispanic Americans ( day parade and ripping women shirts off after parade was over)
□ U.S. citizens with ties to either Latin America or Spain.

Statistical Groups (Used by statisticians and sociologist)

§ 10% of males in the US
□ Between ages 16 and 24 have not graduated from high school

Limited Groups

§ Minimal interaction
□ No personal levels
§ Unconcerned with attitudes and feelings!!
□ Two types
® Aggregate!
◊ All Together in one place
◊ Limited interaction
} Ex: high school assembly, riding on a bus very sporadic someone might say hello
® Associational
◊ Limited socialization
◊ Could be large like Sierra club example from book
◊ Very limited interactions

Aggregate (Type of limited Group)

◊ All Together in one place
◊ Limited interaction
} Ex: high school assembly, riding on a bus very sporadic someone might say hello

Associational (Type of limited Group)

◊ Limited socialization
◊ Could be large like Sierra club example from book
◊ Very limited interactions

Social Groups Membership

Some interaction.....perceived sense of belonging (loyalty).......Organizational structure

Social Group and Associational group

....degree of loyalty separates the two social groups
□ Ex: Sierra Club is an associational group
□ Local chapters of the club are social group

In Groups

§ ....Heightened sense of belonging and loyalty
§ Small or large, but loyalty sets them apart.

Out Groups

§ Groups.... not a member of
§ Less then to no sense of belonging or loyalty(no reason or interest to be apart of the group)
□ Out groups treated/indifference
□ Interest of in and out groups can clash

Peer Groups

○ Informal Primary Groups
§ People With similar statuses and ages
§ Roughly equal in importance
□ Associated with young people
□ But found in all ages

Reference Groups

○ Identify with psychologically
§ Serves as a basis for self evaluation
§ Notes:
□ Need not belong to a group...
□ Ex: Groups we aspire to belong to are reference groups
□ But groups we do not wish to join are also reference groups.

2 types of small group leaders

○ Instrumental (Charismatic leaders)
§ Organize group around
□ Its goals by suggesting ways
□ To achieve them and
□ Persuading members to act appropriately
□ Direct focus
□ Very dynamic
□ Ex: gang instrumental leaders have a lot of power
□ Business leader my way or the highway
○ Expressive
§ Resolve conflicts
□ Create group harmony(Homeostasis and cohesion and cooperation)
□ Encourage social cohesion
□ Lazie faire leader ill be in my office if you need me

○ Instrumental (Charismatic leaders)

§ Organize group around
□ Its goals by suggesting ways
□ To achieve them and
□ Persuading members to act appropriately
□ Direct focus
□ Very dynamic
□ Ex: gang instrumental leaders have a lot of power
□ Business leader my way or the highway

○ Expressive

§ Resolve conflicts
□ Create group harmony(Homeostasis and cohesion and cooperation)
□ Encourage social cohesion
□ Lazie faire leader ill be in my office if you need me

Social Networks

○ Linkage or ties
§ To a set of relationships!
○ Strong Ties
§ Close interpersonal relations
§ Sustained by frequency (and intensity how often we contact)
□ Calls and interactions
○ Weak Ties
§ Impersonal relations and occasional contact
§ Ex: Someone you walk to class with

Strong Ties

§ Close interpersonal relations
§ Sustained by frequency (and intensity how often we contact)
□ Calls and interactions

Weak Ties

§ Impersonal relations and occasional contact

Ex: Someone you walk to class with

Formal Organizations

○ Large Social Groups
§ Formal structure
§ Deliberately constructed and organized
□ Maslow hierarchy of needs to become very good leaders
® Groups formed by needs
§ To achieve some specific
§ And clearly stated goals
○ Formal Organization needs 5 things
§ 3 types of communication
□ Verbal Communication
® Talking
§ Non verbal communication
□ Email, Memos , body language
§ Create levels or authority
§ Channels or command
§ .....clarify who gives orders/ obeys orders
§ ....who does what type of work!
§ Goals can often conflict with each other

Formal Organization needs 5 things

§ 3 types of communication
□ Verbal Communication
® Talking
§ Non verbal communication
□ Email, Memos , body language
§ Create levels or authority
§ Channels or command
§ .....clarify who gives orders/ obeys orders
§ ....who does what type of work!
§ Goals can often conflict with each other

○ Bureaucracy (Max Weber)

§ Formal organization....
□ Directs and coordinates efforts of those involved in various organizational task
□ Classical work Max Weber

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