A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
A complex behavior that is rigidly structured throughout a species and is unlearned.
The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry.
A positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself.
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green.
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life.
emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support.
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals.
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.
a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation).
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson—excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard.