catergories of DRAWING
-sketches that record an idea or provide information about something the artist has seen
-plans or preparatory studies for other projects such as buildings, sculptures, crafts, paintings, plays, and films
-fully developed and autonomous works of art
Dry Media (Silverpoint drawings)
-are created by dragging a silver-tipped implement over a surface that has been coated with a ground of bone dust or chalk mixed with gum, water, and pigment
is sufficiently coarse to allow small flecks of silver from the instrument to adhere to the prepared surface as the implement is drawn across
-as they oxidize, the become tarnished and make the image visible
-are created using a thin rod of graphite encased within wood or paper
-the graphite is ground to dust and mixed with clay and the mixture is baked to harden the clay
-the quantity of clay in the mixture determines the relative hardness or softness of the implement
-when charcoal is dragged across a surface, bits of the material adhere to that surface
-bc charcoal particles rub off more easily, though, the completed drawings must be sprayed with a solution of thinned varnish to keep them affixed
Ink- the primary fluid medium used in drawing
pen and brush- are the instruments used to carry the medium
wash-diluted ink that is applied with a brush
wash-provides a tonal emphasis absent in pen-and-ink drawings
Brush and Wash
-the ink can be diluted to varying degrees to provide a wide tonal range.
-diff effects can be achieved either by adding water directly to the ink or by moistening the support before drawing
orginally, cartoons were full-scale preliminary drawings done on paper for projects such as fresco painting, stained glass, or tapestries.
-the word eventually became associated with humorous and satirical drawings
-many modern cartoons rely on caricature-the gross exaggeration and distortion of natural features to ridicule a social or political target
-the color in a paint derives from its pigment
-the pigment in powdered form is mixed with a binding agent (or vehicle) and a solvent (or medium) to form paint
Fresco is the art of painting on plaster
-buon fresco is executed on damp, lime plaster
-the pigments are mixed with only water, the lime of plaster wall acts as binder
-fresco secco utilizes dry plaster
-the pigments are combined with a vehicle of glue that affixes the color to the dry wall
encaustic involves pigment in a wax vehicle that has been heated to a liquid state
orginally involved ground pigments mixed with a vehicle of egg yolk or whole eggs thinned with water
-oil paint consists of ground pigments combined with a linseed oil vehicle and turpentine medium or thinner
-oil paint is naturally slow in drying but drying can be facilitated with various agents added to the basic mixture
-is a mixture of pigment and a plastic vehicle that can be thinned (and washed off brushes and hands) with water
-unlike linseed oil, the synthetic resin of the binder dries colorless and does not gradually compromise the brilliance of colors
- involves a combination of traditional painting techniques with other materials
- the process may also involve painting on nontraditional supports
- process begins with a design or image made in or on a surface by hitting or pressing with a tool.
- image is then transferred to paper or a similar material.
- transferred image is called PRINT.
- working surface surface (or matrix) varies according to the printmaking technique.
-matrices include wood blocks, metal plates, stone slabs, and silkscreens.
-each kind of matrix requires a special tool; the images in printmaking are usually rendered in ink
- matrix is carved with knives or gouges
- areas not meant to be printed are cut below the surface of the matrix
-areas that form the image and are meant to be printed remain raised
-ink is applied to the raised surfaces, often with a roller
- the matrix is pressed against a sheet of paper; the image is transferred.
- transferred image is the PRINT.
-the oldest form of printmaking, a woodcut is made by using a knife to cut along the grain of the flat surface of a wooden board
-many layers of thin wood are laminated together
- the ends are planed flat to produce a hard, no-directional surface
-burins or gravers are used to incise the surface
-Intaglio prints are created by using metal plated into which lines have been incised
-the plates are covered with ink, which is forced into the linear depressions, and then the surface is carefully wiped
- the incised depressions retain the ink, but the flat surfaces are clean
-the paper is placed atop the plate
- the paper and plate are passed through a printing press, forcing the paper into the incised lines to pickup the ink and accept the image
- clean-cut lines are engraving on a plate of copper, zinc, or steel, by forcing the sharpened point of a burin across the surface with the hell of the hand.
- because the lines are transferred to paper under extreme pressure, they reveal the ink as well as a texture of ridges
-this method of intaglio takes engraving one step further by dragging a needle across the surface
- as a result, one side of the furrow retains a metal burr ( or rough edge ) in the needle's wake
- the burr retains particles of ink, creating a softened rather than crisp line when printed
-metal plate is covered with a liquid, acid-resistant ground consisting of was or resin
- after the ground has hardened, a fine needle is used to draw the image on it
- the matrix is then placed into a acid bath, which immediately begins to eat away (or etch) the exposed areas of the plate
- the sunken lines that hols the ink are created
- in the aquatint process, a metal plate is evenly covered with a fine powder of acid- resistant resin
- as the plate is heated, the resin melts and adheres to the surface
- the matrix is then placed in an acid bath, where its uncovered surfaces are eaten away by the solution
- the depth of tone is controlled by removing the plate from the acid and covering the pits that have been sufficiently etched.
- in the mezzotint process, the artist uses a hatcher ( a curved, multitoothed implement) to produce thousands of tiny pits to hold the ink.
- areas of the plate intended to be lighter are scraped and burnished so they hold less ink
- a broad range of tones is achieved- from the rich black of the rocked surface to the highly polished pitless areas that yield whites
- gauffage ( or inkless intaglio), the artist etches the lines of his design to differing depths
- Furrows in the plate appears as raised surfaces when printed
- as light glances across the surface of the paper, the image's legibility is enhanced.
- the artist draws an image with a greasy crayon directly on a flat stone slab
- small particles of crayon adhere to the granular texture of the stone matrix
- after the design is complete, a solution of nitric acid is applied as a fixative
- the entire surface is dampened with water
- untouched areas of the surface accept the water, but the waxy crayon marks repel it
- a roller is used to cover the stone with oily ink, which adheres to the crayon drawing but repels the water
- when paper is pressed to the stone surface, the ink on the crayon is transferred to the paper, revealing the image
-also known as silkscreen printing, this technique uses a stencil to create the design or image
- one version depends on a screen constructed of a piece of silk, nylon, or fine metal mesh stretched on a frame
- a stencil with a cutout design is then affixed to the screen, and paper or canvas ( or t-shirt) is placed beneath
-the artist forces paint or ink through the open areas of the stencil with a flat, rubber-bladed implement called a squeegee
- several stencils may be used to apply different colors to the same print
-another version utilizes a varnish-like substance that prevents paint or ink from passing through the mesh
-and a 3rd version - photo-silkscreen- allows the artist to create photographic images on a screen covered with a light-sensitive gel
- Drawing or painting is created with oil paint or watercolor on a nonabsorbent surface of any material
- brushes are used, but sometimes fine detail is rendered by scratching paint off the plate with sharp implements
- a piece of paper is then laid on the surface, and the image is transferred by the rubbing the back of the paper or passing the matrix and paper through a press
- photographers make artistic choices:
-they decided which films and lenses to use
- they decide which photographs to retain or discard
- they manipulate lighting conditions or printing processes
-amount of light that enters a camera is determined by the size of the opening or aperture, in the shutter.
- the camera lens focuses light onto a photosensitive surface as film
History of Photography
-The Camera Obscura
-1826 Joseph Niepce - worked with pewter plate in the camera obscura and recorded first permanent photograph
-called the invention a "Heliograph"
Louis Daguerre - worked with ways to fix photographs
-1837 - successfully records sharp/clear image with methods that could be easily reproduced
-Drawbacks to the Daguerreotype:
-Long exposure time 5-40min
- recorded image was reversed
- no negatives - copies could not be made
-Negative was invented in 1839 by British Scientist named TALBOT.
-Negative Images :
-Light and dark reversed
-Negative can be used repeatedly
- the art of making motion pictures
- the illusion of movement is created by stroboscopic motion, which involves the presentation of a rapid progession of images of stationary objects
- is used in television and in experimental video and mixed-media works that incorporate video monitors
- the techniques of cinematography also apply to video