a member of the race of people living in North America when Europeans arrived
(1397 - 1487) was the principal architect of the Aztec Triple Alliance and hence the Mexica (Aztec) empire.
A view created by Spanish authors to describe Inca society as a type of utopia; image of the Inca Empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole.
the Incan ruler under whom the Incan empire reached its widest extent (died in 1525)
Way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies on move; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages.
Powerful postclassic empire in central Mexico (900-1168 C.E.). It influenced much of Mesoamerica. Aztecs claimed ties to this earlier civilization. (p. 305)
Aztec tribal patron god; central figure of cult of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god.
Word for Inca Empire; region from present-day Columbia to Chile and eastward to northern Argentina
Inca practice of descent; all titles and political power went to successor, but wealth and land remained in hands of male descendants for support of cult of dead Inca's mummy.
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
Clans in Aztec society, later explanded to include residential groups that distributed land and provided labor and warriors
a member of the small group of Quechuan people living in the Cuzco valley in Peru who established hegemony over their neighbors to create the great Inca empire that lasted from about 1100 until the Spanish conquest in the early 1530s
Temple of the Sun
Inca religious center located at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas
calculator consisting of a cord with attached cords
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins. (p. 305)
Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields. (p. 301)
Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471; launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca
Ayllu chiefs with privileges of dress and access to resources; community leaders among Andean societies.
were the noble social class in the Mexica Empire.
were professional, long-distance traveling merchants in the Aztec Empire.
translated as "noble Inca accountant," was the tenth Sapa Inca (1471-93 CE) of the Inca Empire, and fifth of the Hanan dynasty.
Inca colonists in new regions; could be Quechua-speakers; used to pacify new conquest or conquered population moved to new home.