Contains carbon and hydrogen
May contain carbon, may contain hydrogen, may not contain either one, but they never have carbon and hydrogen in the same molecule or the same compound.
The sum total of all chemical reactions that take place in a living system.
The build-up or synthesis of molecules.
The forming or building of a more complex substance or compounds from element or simpler compounds.
The break-down or degradation of big molecules back into little molecules.
The break-down of an organic compound.
Dehydration and Hydrolytic
Types of Reactions
Synthesis; Removes Water; Anabolism
A chemical reaction in which two molecules becomes covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
Degradate; Adds Water
A chemical reaction that breaks bonds between two molecules by the addition of water.
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids
Four Major Groups of Organic Molecules
Organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of 1:2:1.
Stand Alone Monomers
Ex. Glucose and Fructose
Monomers of Disaccharides and Polysaccharides
Mose useable form of energy in cellular respiration.
Two Monosaccharides Hooked Together
Ex. Maltose (Same Monomers); Sucrose (Different Monomers).
Three or more monosaccharides hooked together.
Ex. Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose, and Chitin.
They are the way plants make their monosaccharides and their disaccharides. They start hooking them together and they start making these huge long chains.
Animals do not make this, only plants do.
Difference is in how big the monomers are and how big the chains are. They are nice straight linear chains.
Produced by animals. It's the way we store the monosaccharides and the disaccharides in our liver.
Very similar to starches.
Plants do not produce it, only animals do.
Cell Wall of Prokaryotes and Plants
Found in cell walls basically in all prokaryotic cells, all your plant like protestants and your multicellular plants and some in fungi walls.
It is a very complex polysaccharide.
No multicellular animal can break it down.
What happens is you have beta bonds that form so then oxygen bonds alternate and your enzymes don't work on them.
It is strong, but brittle.
Exoskeleton of Animals and in Cell Walls of Certain Fungi.
What makes up the exoskeletons of crayfish, shrimp, crabs, and things like that.
You can't break it down and neither can any other multicellular animal.
It is similar to cellulose. The only difference is that you have small proteins or small amino acids that branch off of the chain.
Monomers are alcohol and fatty acid(s)
They are hydrophobic, so they don't mix with water.
Solid at Room Temperature Due to Saturation
Liquids at Room Temperature Due to Unsaturation
Saturated Fatty Acid
Means they are saturated with hydrogen.
When you see this all of the parts are hooked to each other by the single covalent bonds. Where they aren't sticking to each other there's other hydrogens sticking off.
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
Means you have double or triple bonds somewhere in the fatty acid.
Any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base.
Polar (hydrophilic) at phosphate end; non-polar (hydrophobic) fatty acid end.
Extremely hydrophobic with extremely long fatty acid tails.
Type of structural lipid; long fatty acids chain bonded to long alcohol chain; highly waterproof.
Lipids composed of four linked rings of carbon atoms.
Used for structuring and make up a number of hormones.
Monomers are amino acids
Structural, Contractile, Storage, Defense, Transport, Signaling, Enzymes
Seven Categories of Proteins
The covalent bond between two amino acid units in a polypeptide, formed by a dehydration reaction.
A polymer (chain) of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
Proteins get their function based on what?
Monomers are NaCl
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single stranded; functions in protein synthesis, gene regulation, and as the genome of some viruses.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
A double-stranded helical nucleic acid molecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). Capable of replicating, it is an organism's genetic material.
5 Carbon Sugars, Phosphate Group, Nitrogenous Base
Three Parts of a Nucleotide
Purines and Pyrimidines
Adenine (A) and Guanine (G)
Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) and Uracil (U)
- RNA has ribose, DNA has deoxyribose
2. Nitrogenous Base
- RNA never has thymine; DNA never has uracil
3. Single vs. Double Stranded
- RNA is single stranded. DNA
is double stranded
Three Differences Between RNA and DNA
A specific substance (reactant) on which an enzyme acts.
The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme, caused by the entry of the substrate, so that it binds more snugly to the substrate.
Lock and Key Theory
When the enzyme fits exactly into the substrate forming an enzyme substrate complex.
The substrate that the enzyme is working on has to fit into the active site of the enzymes.
The key has to fit into the lock to make the reaction go. If you put put the wrong key in the wrong lock the reaction is not going to occur.
This is why protein structure is so important. If it can't fit it can't be put together, so it has to mesh or the reaction doesn't go. The place where the reaction takes place is called the active site.
Coiling of a polypeptide chain. Held together by hydrogen bonding.
Beta Pleaded Sheets
Chains of polypeptides arranged in parallel forming a folded, accordion-like, highly stretched conformation.
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Three Domains of Life
Has a membrane bound organelle
10 - 100 Microns
Only certain have cell walls
Has many chromosomes and they are linear
Does not have a nucleus
.5 - 10 microns
Has a cell wall
Ribosomes are smaller
Only has one chromosome
Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalea
250 Microns Long
A long tale
Free living or a lot living together
Cellular specialization, what cells specialize in. Stays switched on.
Cellular differentiation, differentiates what a cell does.
Like animalea, plants, fungi. Holds true for their characteristics.
Contains cellulose fibrils
Provides support and protection
A thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell.
Phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins.
Outer cell surface that regulates entrance and exit of molecules.
Enclosed by nuclear envelope; contains chromatin
Storage of genetic information; synthesis of DNA and RNA
Threads of DNA and protein
Concentrated area of chromatin
Produces subunits of ribosomes
Protein and RNA in two subunits
Carries out protein synthesis
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Membraneous, flattened channels and tubular canals; rough ER and smooth ER
Synthesis and/or modification of proteins and other substances; transport by vesicle formation.
Studded with ribosome
Modify Protein Synthesis
Synthesis of lipid and carb molecule
Stack of membraneous saccules
Wear house of cell
Process, packaging, and distributes proteins and lipids
Stores and transports substances
Carries out photosynthesis
Maintains cell shape and assist movement of cell parts
Cilia and Flagella
Movement of cell
One of two small cylindrical cell organelles
Small region of cytoplasm adjacent to the nucleus
Digests macromolecules and cell parts
Breaks down fatty acids and converts resulting hydrogen peroxide to water; various other functions
Carries out cellular respiration, producing ATP molecules.
States that all living things are composed of cells and that cells come only from other cells
Regulates movement of molecules into and out of cytoplasm
The protoplasm of a cell excluding the nucleus