In 1763, Grenville became prime minister of Britain. He was determined to reduce Britain's debt.
writs of assistance
These legal documents allowed customs officers to enter any location to search for smuggles goods.
The act allowed the tax on molasses imported by the colonies. Grenville hoped the lower tax would convince the colonists to pay the tax instead of smuggling.
A young lawyer in Boston, argued that "no parts of England's colonies can be taxed without consent... every part has a right to be represented." In his speeches and pamphlets, Otis defined and defended colonial rights.
Placed a tax on almost all printed material in the colonies.
Ex. newspapers, pamphlets, wills, playing cards, etc
persuaded the Burgesses to take action against the Stamp Act, he was accused of treason
a formal expression of opinion
he helped start an organization called the Sons of Liberty
Stamp Act Congress
They drafted a petition to the king and Parliament declaring that the colonies could not be taxed except by their own assemblies.
refuse to buy
In these agreements, they pledged not to buy or use goods imported from Great Britain.
Declaratory Act of 1766
stated that Parliament had the right to tax and make decisions for the British colonies "in all cases."
In these acts, the British leaders tried to avoid some of the problems the Stamp Act caused. The new taxes applied only to imported goods, with the tax being paid at the port of entry.
On March 5, 1770, a fight broke out between townspeople and soldiers; the angry townspeople moved through the streets picking up any weapon they could find and starting throwing them at the soldiers; after one of the soldiers was knocked down, the redcoats fired killing five colonists, among the dead was Crispus Attucks, a dockworker
information designed to influence opinion
committee of correspondence
in 1772, Samuel Adams revived the Boston committee of correspondence, an organization used in earlier protests; the committee circulated writings about colonists' grievances against Britain
Tea Act of 1773
this gave the British East India Company the right to ship tea to the colonies without paying most of the taxes usually placed on tea
Boston Tea Party
On December 16, a group of men disguised as Mohawks and armed with hatchets marched to the wharves, at midnight they boarded the ships and threw 342 chests of tea overboard
King George III
when news of the Boston Tea Party reached London, he realized that Britain was losing control of the colonies
Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)
spring of 1774, Parliament passed the Coercive Acts, very harsh laws intended to punish the people of Massachusetts for their resistance; closed the Boston harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea and forced the Bostonians to shelter soldiers in their own homes, but the other colonies sent food and clothing to demonstrate their support for Boston
this act set up a permanent government for Quebec and granted religious freedom to French Catholics
In Sept. 1774, 55 men arrived in the city of Philadelphia. Sent as delegates from all the colonies except Georgia, these men had come to establish a political body to represent American interests and challenge British control.
a successful lawyer, younger cousin to Samuel Adams from Massachusetts
another lawyer, from New York
Richard Henry Lee & Patrick Henry
two of the most outspoken defenders of colonial rights from Virginia
group of citizen soldiers
people that were ready to fire on a minute's notice
Sir Thomas Gage
Gage had instructions to take away the weapons of the Massachusetts militia and arrest the leaders. He learned that the militia was storing arms and ammunition at Concord, a town about 20 miles northwest of Boston.
Paul Revere & William Dawes
leading members of the Sons of Liberty; they rode to Lexington, a town east of Concord, to warn Samuel Adams and John Hancock that the British are coming; Revere shouted, "The regulars are out!"
a caption in the Connecticut militia, was authorized to raise a force of 400 to seize Fort Ticonderoga, then he left for the British and became a general in the British army
The Battle of Bunker Hill
was at the bottom of Breed's Hill, took place on June 16, 1775, the British won but suffered a heavy loss, the British learned that defeating the Americans wasn't going to be easy
loyal to Britain
were determined to fight the British to the end
Second Continental Congress
met May 10, 1775, acted as a central government for the colonies, delegates included John and Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, and George Washington
**New Delegates: Benjamin Franklin, John Hancock, and Thomas Jefferson
How did The Second Continental Congress governed the colonies?
1. authorized the printing of money
2. set up a post office with Franklin in charge
3. establish a Continental Army with George Washington in charge
4. sent the Olivia Branch Petition to King George III
of Pennsylvania; one of the most accomplished and respected men in the colonies, had been an influential member of the Pennsylvania legislature; in 1765, during the Stamp Act Crisis, he represented the colonies in London and helped secure the repeal of the act
of Massachusetts; 38 years old, was a wealthy merchant; he found many Patriot groups, including the Sons of Liberty; the delegates chose Hancock as president of the Second Continental Congress
of Virginia; only 32 when the Congress began, had already acquired a reputation as a brilliant thinker and writer; as a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, he had become associated with the movement toward independence
to fight against Britain in a more organized way than the colonial militias could, created by the Second Continental Congress
Why was George Washington chosen to be the army's commander?
on John Adam's recommendation, just because he was from Virginia, they liked people from Virginia
Olivia Branch Petition
a formal request sent to King George III asking for peace and for the king to protect the colonists' rights, but he refused to even read it and prepared for war
in Jan. 1776, Paine published a pamphlet called Common Sense that captured the attention of the American colonists
Declaration of Independence
The Committee of Five drafted the declaration, written by Thomas Jefferson, took the ideas of John Locke
Four main parts:
1. the preamble, or introduction
2. a list of rights of the colonists
3. a list of the grievance against Britain (27)
4. a proclamation claiming the emergence of a new nation
The Committee of Five
drafted the declaration; included Jefferson, Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman of Connecticut, and Robert Livingston of New York
When did John Hancock sign the Declaration of Independence? Why? What's so special about it?
Hancock signed it on August 2nd, 1776; because it was sent to the other colonies and it took some time to get back; he was the first to sign and he remarked that he wrote his name large enough for King George to read it without glasses