Exploited the Colonies and retarded growth, trade, and industry-command economy, favored England-economic monolpoly
, An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by selling more goods than they bought (favorable balance of trade). This theory said that a country's power depended mainly on its wealth.
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
Restricted colonial trade-reinforced the Mercantilist system
causes of the revolution
french and indian war, Pontiac's rebellion, proclamation of 1763, grenvilles acts, war debt, period of solitude and neglect, and violation of the magna carta.
this document is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights. The right to representation in parliament if to be taxed. "No taxation without representation"
english common law
this law was ordered by Henry II which made changes to the english judicial system. It based the law on precedent rather than a code and introduced trial by jury.
in 1770 five patriots led by Crispus Attucks are gunned down in broad day light by the british troops led by captain preston that are occupying boston trying to initimidate people. (red coats)
Lexington and Concord
started the american revolution on July 19, 1775.Gen. Gage received orders to arrest sam adams and john hancock and destroy weapons stored at concord.
Minute men and Paul Revere : "The British are coming"
patriots hide weapons
British and Minute Men fight at Lexington and British win and march on to Concord. They fight again and British win, the weapons are hidden though so they burn down the town.
As British march back to Boston, minutemen ambush them and kill many as they run scared
Grenvilles Tax policy
Because of the major war debt and the need for additional funds to deal with cost of colonial protection and the fact that English citizens were already paying extremely high taxes, exchequer chancellor, brother-n-law of william pitt, begins to impose a system of taxation on the colonies.
(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
The stamp act
a law passed by the British Parliament in 1765 requiring colonists to pay a tax on newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, and playing cards
Writs of Assistance
It was part of the Townshend Acts. It said that the customs officers could inspect a ship's cargo without giving a reason. Colonists protested that .......violated their rights as British citizens.
laws passed in 1767 that taxed goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea
colonists were required to provide housing and food to British soldiers
committees of correspondence
Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act and Townshend Acts. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
a person who supported the British cause in the American Revolution; a loyalist
party that favored a national bank, protective tariffs and eventually the abolition of slavery
places like boston became armed camps with ten of thousands of troops
volunteer soldiers that fight when notified.
King George III demanded full payment of the tea and until that happened boston harbor was closed.
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party
first continental congress
convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. met in Philly, all present except Georgia. voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, demanding immediate repeal of the Intolerable Acts
led by ethan allen and the green mountain boys. they capture crown point and ft. ticonderoga. Allen capture valuable artillery. the key was to capture quebec
to overpower the colonial army in conventional warfare.Capture major points and cities, capture the capitol philly, win back the loyalty of the people.
superior, trained and experienced, state of the art weapons, best navy, controls the seas, german mercenaries-hessians.
bad officers and leaders, they dont know the land, no real friends, bright red uniforms
Second continental congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
Olive branch petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
bloodiest battle of the war. A battle that took place on Breed's Hill. British twice driven back, 3rd time succeed cause patriots out of ammo. Patriots led by col. Prescott and Dr. Warren. British win but suffer major casualties. gave patriots confidence, not turning back now. "Don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes"-Warren. Peter Salem shoots Major Pitcairn.
Battle of Dorchester Heights
After the Battle of Bunker Hill, General Washington asks Henry Knox to bring canons to Dorchester Heights and position them over Boston -- the British surrendered.
Battle of Long Island
British General Howe sails into Long Island Sound (Brooklyn Heights) and majorly outnumbers Washington's troops. Washington forced to fight conventionally and loses badly. Washington escapes via mysterious fog and moves into NJ. Wash at worst.
Battle of Trenton
Christmas night, Washington crosses Delaware River when Hessains were celebrating the holiday. In the morning he launches surprise attack on the hung over British mercenaries and wins
Battle of Princeton
A week after the Battle at Trenton, Washington left a few men to tend some campfires and fool the enemy again. He quietly marched his army to Princeton, where they suprised and beat a British force. New Jersey turned Patriot. This battle helped the American morale.
Thomas Paine and Common sense
from philadelphia-writes an article called "common sense" where he explaines that it just makes sense to fight the war for independence. He also publishes a series of essays in a circular called "the crisis" co-authored by ben franklin. The pamphlet is very popular and sells over 120,000 copies. It helps transform the people's minds towards all out struggle and the declaration of independence.
Declaration of Independence
This document was
adopted on July 4, 1776. It
established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Wrote by Thomas Jefferson and Ben Franklin. all men created equal, right to overthrow an unjust gov't, life liberty, and pursuit of happiness.
battle of saratoga
British planned to corner patriots in NE by marching from 3 different directions. Howe, St. Leger, and Burgoyne were the 3 generals. St. Leger defeated, Howe ditched, Burgoyne stood alone and was forced to surrender. Horatio Gates got credit even though Benedict Arnold was the real hero. Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military and financial support. Spain also decided to fight Britain on our behalf. Russia pledged to stay out of it.
battle of brandywine
George Washington vs. Howe, Washington loses because he was forced to fight conventionally and retreats through Phillidelphia, American Leaders go west and the British have a victory
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops
Battle of monmouth
Clinton replaced Howe and tries to advance into NY. Washington tries to block his movement 1778. Washington asks Lee to hold British until he can get reinforcements but Lee retreats. Washington arrives, fights and battle ends in a draw. first time Washington fought conventionally and did not lose.
War in the West
Hamilton "The hair buyer" encouraged Indian attacks and paid for their scalps. George Rogers Clark pushed west and captured fort Vincennes in Indiana. 2 Iroqouis tribes fight for patriots, the rest fight for British. marks the end of the Iroquois and most other tribes in the West
victory led by george rogers clark; patriots gained control of the fort, British took it back, then patriots recapture. Was the turning point of the war.
George Rogers Clark
Hero of the West. Leader of a small Patriot force that captured British-controlled Fort Vincennes in the Ohio Valley in 1779., secured the Northwest Territory for America
Successful American general during the Revolution who was wounded in the quebec and saratoga battle. he turned traitor giving the british west point fort in 1780 when they told him they would wipe out his debt, and he joined the British cause.
An american spy who was hung and said "i regret to only give one life to my country" , a soldier of the American Revolution who was hanged as a spy by the British.
John Paul Jones
American naval commander in the American Revolution (1747-1792) said " I have not yet begun to fight." when british shot fire onto his ship.
baron von steuben
volunteer, general in Prussia,offered help to Patriots after Washington won the battles at Trenton & Princeton, arrived at Valley Forge in the spring of 1778
war of the south militia leader nicknamed the "Swamp Fox" for his hit-and-run (guerilla) attacks on the British during the American Revolution.
General in the south who fights war of attrition (wearing down his enemies using hit and run tactics). loses but wears down the British force.
War in the South
British attacked here as it was heavily loyalist and easier to take over. At first they had success and took Savannah. Then they took over Charlestown, SC in 1780. Francis Marion & Thomas Sumter developed guerrilla warfare & tormented them all over the Carolinas; Nathaniel Greene tormented General Cornwallis & exhausted their morale & supplies. British retreated to Yorktown,VA
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet(Rochambeau and Lafayette). He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Treaty of Paris 1783
negotiated by John Jay. official end of the American Revolution. British recognize American Independence. Spain gets Florida back. Britain promises to withdraw all troops in the colonies but actually doesn't do it.
An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death." Henry served as Governor of Virginia from 1776-1779 and 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
General Thomas Gage
-Commanding General of British troops in America before and at beginning of American Revolution -Planned raid on Concord which started the American revolution
A delegate from Pennsylvania and proposed the "Albany Plan of the Union" as a way to strengthen colonies. Oldest delegate at the constitutional convention.
American silversmith remembered for his midnight ride (celebrated in a poem by Longfellow) to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming (1735-1818)
A leader of the Sons of Liberty who rode with Paul Revere to Lexington to warn them that the British where coming
Member of the first and second Continental Congress, signed the Declaration of Independence, and served as governor of Massachusetts. He was very supportive of a revolution.
American revolutionary patriot who was president of the Continental Congress. was the first to sign the declaration of independence.
commander in chief of the continental army during the american revolutionary. Was a better leader when fought unconventionally and not conventionally
Became prime minister of Britain in 1763 he persuaded the Parliament to pass a law allowing smugglers to be sent to vice-admiralty courts which were run by British officers and had no jury. He did this to end smuggling.
king george III
King of England, stubborn, stupid, levied taxes even though he knew colonist would hate it, poor ruler, passed Quartering Act, hated colonists, wanted to show who's in charge
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
canadian Campaign. a soldier of the American Revolution whose troops helped capture Fort Ticonderoga from the British (1738-1789) and leader of the green mountain boys
In 1775 George Washington ordered him, the nation's first secreatry of war, to bring the British artillery back to the siege of Boston that was captured at Fort Ticonderoga.
• English general stationed in New York • Requested the Quartering Act • Offered freedom to slaves who fought for England • Made Governor of Massachusetts but his power was later limited to just the Boston area • Closed Massachusetts port but other colonies smuggled goods in to help Boston survive • Lead the british army at the Battle of Lexington
mad anthony wayne
The leader of the army that crushed the Indians of the Northwest Territory in 1794., American general during the American Revolution (1745-1796)
-African Amerian soldier who fought for America's freedom. -Fought at Lexington-Concord - became a hero at Bunker Hill.
Killed in Boston Massacre, black laborer, only African-American person killed in Boston Massacre
Battle of Saratoga
shot by Peter Salem Bunker Hill. disperse ye rebels
American Commander at the Battle of Bunker Hill
(General henry clinton) British commander in the South, penetrated Camden, South Carolina, met and crushed a Patriot force under Horatio Gates on August 16, 1780. Was defeated at the battle of yorktown
German mercenaries who fought for the British
(replaces general gage)He took command of British troops in North America after the Battle of Bunker Hill. He captured New York and Philadelphia, but botched the plan to isolate the New England colonies in 1777. He resigned in 1778.
marquis de lafayette
French soldier who served under George Washington in the American Revolution (1757-1834)
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Treaty of Paris. United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)
delegate to the American Continental Congress and said "united we stand, divided we fall"
The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.Brought the seven years war to the end.
(british prime minister) government official, close to the king, likeable, sponsored taxes, "Champagne Charlie", sponsored taxes for: lead, glass, paper, paint & tea, (townshend acts)
Officer acquitted of all charges in a trial in Boston about the Boston Massacre. Two of his men were guilty of manslaughter.
ralph waldo emerson
American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.
henry wadsworth longfellow
American poet that was influenced somewhat by the transcendentalism occurring at the time. He was important in building the status of American literature.
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won
the French Naval commander who defeated the British fleet at the battle of Yorktown, preventing Cornwallis from retreating by sea.
British commander in the French and Indian War. He was killed and his army defeated in a battle at the intersection of the Ohio, Allegheny, and Monongahela Rivers, known as the Battle of Fallen Timbers. After his death, his colonial second-in-command, Col. George Washington, temporarily lead the British forces.
He replaced General William Howe as Commander-in-Chief of British forces in the American Revolution. He shifted the focus of the war to the southern colonies, hoping to capitalize on strong Tory support.
marquis de montcalm
The leader of the French forces at Quebec who saw Quebec fall under smaller forces under the command of Gen. Wolfe. Marquis died during the Battle of Quebec.
the British general whose success in the Battle of Quebec won Canada for the British Empire. Even though the battle was only fifteen minutes, Wolfe was killed in the line of duty. This was a decisive battle in the French and Indian War.
The Quebec Act
gave Quebec authority over Massachusetts, NE colonies, and all land north of Ohio
great leaders (G Washington), know the land, have friends, fight unconventionally (guerilla warfare), fighting for a righteous cause (freedom, independence)
poorly equipped, small, unorganized, undisciplined, untrained, no artillery, no money, quick to desert