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African Civilizations and the Spread of Islam

The "Demographic Transition" is often associated with what change in society?

Industrialization

What was the social and political function of the griots?

Griots mastered the oral traditions of the Malinke and by knowing the past were considered excellent advisors of kings.

How was the institution of slavery viewed in Muslim society?

In theory, slavery was seen as a stage in the process of conversion of pagans to Islam.

Between 800 and 1500 as the frequency and intensity of contact with the outside world increased, which of the following had the most significant impact on sub-Saharan Africa?

The arrival of Islam

What accounted for the downfall of Songhay?

Invasion by a Moroccan Muslim army equipped with firearms, following by internal revolts

The puritanical reform movements of the Almoravids and Almohadis arose among what groups of people in Africa?

The Berbers, native desert dwellers of North Africa

What region of Africa was first converted to Islam by 700 C.E.?

North Africa

African societies organized around the kinship or other forms of obligation and lacking the concentration of political power and authority were referred to as?

stateless

What was the common cultural trait of the urbanized trading ports of the east African coast?

Bantu-based and Arabic-influenced Swahili language

What was the impact of the Portuguese arrival on the trading patterns of the east African coast?

Despite great effort to shift the focus of trade into their hands, the Portuguese were never able to control trade on the northern Swahili coast.

The Sahel refers to the

grassland belt at the southern edge of the Sahara that served as a point of exchange between the forests of the south and north Africa.

The study of population is referred to as

demography

Why was Islam so readily adopted by rulers within the Sudan?

The Muslim concept of a ruler who united civil and religious authority reinforced traditional ideas of kingship

What Sudanic kingdom declined in 1076, making way for new political organizations in the region?

Ghana

What was the nature of trade with towns east of Africa?

international trade flourished in the urbanized ports of east Africa, including commerce with India and China

How did contact with the Muslim world affect the African slave trade?

slavery became a more widely diffused phenomenon and the slave trade developed rapidly

What was the most important Christian kingdom in Africa?

Ethiopia

What were some major differences between African civilizations and other post classical societies?

disparities between the technologies and ideologies of Europeans and Africans also created differences in the ways in which their societies developed

How did the expansion of Islam aid in the creation of international trade on the east African coastline?

Islam expanded to India and southeast Asia, providing a religious bond of trust between those regions and the converted rulers of the cities of east Africa.

What is mwene mutapa

title the king took

What state represents the development of Bantu concepts of kingship and state building?

Great Zimbabwe

Which of the following statements concerning Great Zimbabwe is NOT correct?

Great Zimbabwe was constructed by Arab Muslims who were trading with the Bantu residents of the region

What is Zanj?

the Arabian term for the east African coast

What is an Askia?

rulers that extended the boundries of the empires, so that by the mid-16th century, Songhai dominated central Sudan

What is a Sundiata?

a leader whose exploits were the foundation of a great oral tradition; created unified state & basic rules for malinke society

True or False: Neither universal states nor universal religion characterized Africa, but both Christianity and Islam did not find adherents in Africa.

True

True or False: Malinke society was divided into three groups, clans of freemen, people devoted to religion, and specialists and tradesmen.

True

True or False: A moral code based on one supreme god was a belief shared by practicioners of many indigenous African religions.

False

True or False: The farmers of Mali were barely able to provide the basic foods that supported the imperial states.

True

True or False: Sudanic states had territorial core areas in which of the people were of the same ethnic background but their power extended over subordinate communities.

True

Songhai was originally part of which African empire?

Mali

Which group did NOT migrate to the coastal region of East Africa?

Berbers from North Africa

Which of the following regions was NOT one of the important points of cultural contact between Africa and Islam?

The Persian Gulf

What was the relationship between Islam and the indigenous religions of Africa?

Islam accommodated pagan practice and belief in the early stages of conversion, because rulership and authority was still based on the ability to intercede with local spirits.

Which of the following statements concerning the original social and economic organization of the early Bantu is NOT correct?

They lived in large temple complexes featuring monumental architecture with ceremonial purposes.

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