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true

The practice we now call probation began in Boston as a result of the efforts of John Augustus, an unpaid volunteer

true

Most states authorized probation for juveniles before authorizing it for adults

true

Pre sentence investigation reports are assumed to help judges in the sentencing process

false

Judges and probation officers differ on sentencing recommendations in 50 to 60 percent of the cases

false

Victim impact statements typically result in judges sentencing defendants more harshly

false

Probationers cannot be incarcerated for violation of technical conditions of their probation

true

In revocation hearings probationers are allowed to testify themselves and to present witnesses on their behalf

true

The use of small caseloads for intensive supervisors officers may result in other probation and parole officers having larger caseloads

false

African Americans are much more likely to be placed on probation that any other racial or ethnic group

true

As a result of a variety of factors, we are likely to see community corrections programs increasing in the next decade

true

Community-based correctional programming may decrease some of the stigma associated with incarceration

false

Recent research has found that most community corrections programs significantly reduce the level of law-violating behavior in program participants

false

In most states the laws require all community-based correctional programs to be operated by a government agency

true

As a result of receiving funding from multiple sources, community corrections program may be accountable to multiple organizations demanding different standards

false

Staff burnout is not a problem we typically associate with non-secure residential treatment programs like halfway houses

false

Very few diversion programs result in net widening

true

House arrest is a fairly old form of punishment

false

Electronic monitoring of offenders has allowed many jurisdictions to shut down jails and prisons

true

One of the deficiencies of electronic monitoring is that it monitors location, but not behavior

false

Jail did not appear in the United States until the early twentieth century

false

Early English jails were designed to punish sentence offenders

true

The 1999 national jails census found that just under 2 percent of the nation's jail inmates were HIV-positive

false

There are more prisons in the United States than there are jails

false

More female inmates are serving time exclusively in women's jails

false

"New-Generation" jails involved just a change in architecture and not a change in management philosophy

true

When jail inmates are left unsupervised for long periods of time, assaults and suicides can occur

true

Some sheriffs use jail assignments as places of punishments for their employees

true

Jails typically have to compete with other, more politically popular programs for local funding

false

No state currently allows for the operation of private jails

false

Jails that operate under state standards and comply with those standards cannot be sued by inmates

false

Most jails operate a full range of inmate treatment programs equal to those of prisons

true

The presence of mentally ill inmates has become an increasing problem in jails in the United States

false

The same due process protections apply to probation revocation hearings as to criminal trials

false

Economic sanctions against offenders initially were used in the 1960's

true

It is estimated that every year, somewhere around 22 million individuals are processed through jails in the United States

true

Total institutions control virtually all aspects of the physical and social environment of the people who live in them.

true

Dehumanization is one of the rites of passage in total institutions

true

The hub of activity for certain types of prisons is called "times square"

false

Traditional, linear-design prisons employ a direct supervision method for inmate housing units

true

Corrections Corporation of American is one of the nation's largest private corrections firms

true

Federal prison camps can best be described as a low-security facilities

true

Prison crowding seems to be most common in public facilities with inmate populations between 1,500 and 2,499

false

Most private correctional facilities in the United States are operating above their rated capacities

false

Currently, there are 1,000 private prisons operating in the United States

true

Most inmate work programs involve prisoners cleaning and caring for the prison and surrounding grounds

true

Nearly 98 percent if the state-operated prions in the U.S. offer counseling programs

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