← Organizational Behaviour Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Organizational Behaviour A field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups, and structure on behaviour within organzations; the aim is to apply such knowledge toward improving organizational effectiveness. Organization A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of a group of people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. Ethics The study of moral values or principles that guide our behaviour and informs us whether actions are right or wrong. Workforce Diversity The mix of people in organizations in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, disability, sexual orientation, age, and demographic characteristics such as education and socio-economic status. Productivity A performance measure including effectivenss and efficiency. Effectiveness The achievement of goals. Efficiency The ratio of effective work output to the input required to produce the work. Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) Discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employee's formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization. Systematic Study The examination of behaviour in order to draw conclusions, based on scientific evidence, about causes and effects in relationships. Contingency Approach An approach taken by OB that considers behaviour within the context in which it occurs. Perception The process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Attribution Theory The theory that when we observe what seems like atypical behaviour by an individual, we attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. Distinctiveness (Attribution Theory) A behaviour rule that considers whether an individual acts similarly across a variety of situations. (Attribution Theory) Consensus (Attribution Theory) A behavioural rule that considers if everyone faced with a similar situation responds in the same way. (Attribution Theory) Consistency (Attribution Theory) A behavioural rule that considers whether the individual has been acting in the same way over time. (Attribution Theory) Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviour of others. Self-Serving Bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting blame for failures on external factors. Selective Perception People's selective interpretation of what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. Halo Effect Drawing a general impression of an individual on the basis of a single characteristic. Contrast Effects The concept that our reaction to one person is often influenced by other people we have recently encountered. Projection Attributing one's own characteristics to other people. Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of one's perception of the group to which that person belongs. Prejudice An unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a particular stereotyped group. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy A concept that proposes a person will behave in ways consistent with how he or she is perceived by others. Personality The stable patterns of behaviour and consistent internal states that determine how an individual reacts to and interacts with others. Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individual's behaviour. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types. (ex. ESTJ) The Big Five Model Notion that five basic personality dimensions underlie all others and encompass most of the significant variation in human personality. Extraversion (Big Five Model) A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is sociable, talkative, and assertive. (from Big Five Model) Agreeableness (Big Five Model) A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is good-natured, cooperative, and trusting. (from Big Five Model) Conscientiousness (Big Five Model) A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement-oriented. (from Big Five Model) Emotional Stability (Big Five Model) A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is calm, self-confident, and secure. (from Big Five Model) Openness to Experience (Big Five Model) A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is imaginative, artistically sensitive, and intellectual. (from Big Five Model) Internals (Locus of Control) Individuals who believe that they control their destinies. (Locus of Control) Externals (Locus of Control) Individuals who believe that their lives are controlled by outside forces, such as luck or chance. (Locus of Control) Locus of Control The degree to which people believe they are in control of their own fate. Machiavellianism The degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means. Self-Esteem The degree to which individuals like or dislike themselves. Self-Monitoring A personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust behaviour to external, situational factors. Risk-Taking A person's willingness to take chances or risks. Type A Personality A personality with aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time and, if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or other people. Proactive Personality A person who identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until meaningful chance occurs. Emotions Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. Moods Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus. Emotional Labour When an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal interactions (to maximize organizational productivity). (ex. enthusiasm or loyalty) Emotional Intelligence An assortment of noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person's ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures. Employee Deviance Voluntary actions that violate established norms and threaten the organization, its members, or both. Affective Events Theory (AET) The theory that employees react emotionally to things that happen to them at work and that this emotional reaction influences their job performance and satisfaction. Values Concepts or beliefs that guide how we make decisions about and evaluations of behavioiurs and events. Terminal Values Goals that individuals would like to achieve during their lifetime. Instrumental Values Preferable ways of behaving. Attitudes Positive or negative feelings about objects, people, or events. Job Satisfaction An individual's general attitude toward his or her job. Exit (Type of Behaviour) Dissatisfaction expressed by actively attempting to leaving the organization. (Constructive vs Destructive, Active vs Passive) Voice (Type of Behaviour) Dissatisfaction expressed by actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions. (Constructive vs Destructive, Active vs Passive) Loyalty (Type of Behaviour) Dissatisfaction expressed by passively waiting for conditions to improve. (Constructive vs Destructive, Active vs Passive) Neglect (Type of Behaviour) Dissatisfaction expressed by passively allowing conditions to worsen. (Constructive vs Destructive, Active vs Passive) Organizational Commitment A state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. Affective Commitment (Type of Organizational Commitment) An individual's emotional atachment to, identification with, and involvement in the organization. (Type of Organizational Commitment) Normative Commitment (Type of Organizational Commitment) The obligation an individual feels to staying wiht the organization. (Type of Organizational Commitment) Continuance Commitment (Type of Organizational Commitment) An individual's calculation to stay with the organization based on the perceived costs of leaving the organization. (Type of Organizational Commitment) Cultural Intelligence The ability to understand someone's unfamiliar and ambiguous gestures in the same way as would people from his or her culture. Motivation The intensity, direction, and persistence of effort a person shows in reaching a goal. Theory X The assumption that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. Theory Y The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives. Intrinsic Motivators A person's internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction. (Type of Motivator) Extrinsic Motivators Motivation that comes from outside the person and includes such things as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards. (Type of Motivator) McClelland's Theory of Needs Achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation. (Theory) Need for Achievement The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. (McClelland's Theory of Needs) Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. (McClelland's Theory of Needs) Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. (McClelland's Theory of Needs) Expectancy Theory The theory that individuals act depending upon their evaluation of whether their effort will lead to good performance, whether good performance will be followed by a given outcome, and whether that outcome is attractive to them. Expectancy The belief that effort is related to performance. Instrumentality The belief that performance is related to rewards. Valence The value or importance an individual places on a reward. Goal What an individual is trying to accomplish. Management by Objectives (MBO) An approach to goal setting in which specific measurable goals are jointly set by managers and employees; progress on goals is periodically reviewed, and rewards are allocaed on the basis of this progress. Self-Efficacy An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. Equity Theory Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond so as to eliminate any inequities. (Theory) Distributive Justice The perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals. Procedural Justice The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards. Interactional Justice The quality of the interpersonal treatment received from a manager. Cognitive Evaluation Theory Offering extrinsic rewards (e.g., pay) for work effort that was previously rewarding intrinsically will tend to decrease the overall level of a person's motivation. (Theory) Operant Conditioning A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behaviour leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. Continuous Reinforcement A desired behaviour is reinforced each and every time it is demonstrated. (Type of Reinforcement) Intermittent Reinforcement A desired behaviour is reinforced often enough to make the behaviour worth repeating, but not every time it is demonstrated. (Type of Reinforcement) Fixed-Interval Schedule The reward is given at fixed time intervals. (Type of Intermittent schedule of reinforcement) Variable-Interval Schedule The reward is given at variable time intervals. (Type of Intermittent schedule of reinforcement) Fixed-Ratio Schedule The reward is given at fixed amounts of output. (Type of Intermittent schedule of reinforcement) Variable-Ratio Schedule The reward is given at variable amounts of output. (Type of Intermittent schedule of reinforcement) Variable-Pay Program A reward program in which a portion of an employee's pay is based on some individual and/or organizational measure of performance. Piece-Rate Pay Plan An individual-based incentive plan in which employees are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed. Gainsharing A group-based incentive plan in which improvements in group productivity determine the total amount of money to be shared. Profit-Sharing Plan An organization-wide plan in which the employer shares profits with employees based on a predetermined formula. Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP) A company-established benefit plan in which employees acquire stock as part of their benefits. Skill-Based Pay Pay based on how many skills an employee has or how many jobs he or she can do. Job Design How tasks are assigned to form a job. Job Rotation The periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another. Job Enlargement The horizontal expansion of jobs. (It increased the number and variety of tasks that an individual performed.) Job Characteristics Model (JCM) A model that identifies five core job dimensions and their relationship to personal and work outcomes. Job Enrichment The vertical expansion of jobs. (It increaes the degree to which workers control the planning, execution, and evaluation of their work.) Skill Variety (JCM) The degree to which the job requires a variety of different activities. (JCM) Task Identity (JCM) The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work. (JCM) Task Significance (JCM) The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people. (JCM) Autonomy (JCM) The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. (JCM) Feedback (JCM) The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individul obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. (JCM) Motivating Potential Score (MPS) A predictive index suggesting the motivation potential in a job. Compressed Workweek A four-day week, with employees working 10 hours a day; or nine days of work over two weeks. Flextime An arrangement where employees work during a common core period each day but can form their total workday from a flexible set of hours outside the core. Job Sharing The practice of having two or more people split a 40-hour-a-week job. Telecommuting An arrangement where employees do their work at home on a computer that is linked to their office. Group Two or more people with a common relationship. Team A small number of people who work closely together toward a common objective and are accountable to one another. Problem-Solving Team (or Process-Improvement) A group of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. Quality Circle A work group of 8 to 10 employees and managers who meet regularly to discuss their quality problems, investigate causes of the problems, recommend solutions, and take corrective actions. Self-Managed Team (or Self-Directed) A group of 10 to 15 employees who take on many of the responsibilities of their former managers. Cross-Functional Team (or Project) A group of employees at about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task. Task Force A temporary cross-functional team. Committee A group composed of members from different departments. Virtual Team A team that uses computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. Role A set of expected behaviours of a person in a given position in a social unit. Role Expectations How others believe a person should act in a given situation. (Role) Role Conflict A situation in which an individual finds that complying with one role requirement may make it more difficult to comply with another. (Role) Role Ambiguity A person is unclear about his or her role. (Role) Role Overload Too much is expected of someone. (Role) Role Underload Too little is expected of someone, and that person feels that he or she is not contributig to the group. (Role) Norms Acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group's members. Conformity Adjusting one's behaviour to align with the norms of the group. Forming The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty. (The Five-Stage Model) Storming The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict. (The Five-Stage Model) Norming The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationship and cohesiveness. (The Five-Stage Model) Performing The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional. (The Five-Stage Model) Adjourning The final stage in group development for temporary groups, where attention is directed toward wrapping up activities rather than task performance. (The Five-Stage Model) Task-Oriented Roles Roles performed by group members to ensure that the tasks of the group are accomplished. Maintenance Roles Roles performed by group members to maintain good relations within the group. Individual Roles Roles performed by group members that are not productive for keeping the team on task. Group Diversity The presence of a heterogeneous mix of individuals within a goup. Social Loafing The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. Cohesiveness The degree to which team members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay on the team. Communication The transfer and understanding of a message between two or more people. Encoding Converting a message to symbolic form. (Coding) Decoding Interpreting a sender's message. (Coding) Message What is communicated. Channel The medium through which a message travels. Communication Apprehension Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication, or both. Channel Richness The amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode. Feedback Loop The final link in the communication process; it puts the message back into the system as a check against misunderstandings. Filtering A sender's manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favourably by the receivers. Information Overload A condition in which information inflow exceeds as individual's processing capacity. Communication Networks Channels by which information flows. (Network) Formal Networks Task-related communications that follow the authority chain. (Network with an s) Informal Networks Communications that flow along social and relational lines. (Network) Grapevine The organization's most common informal network. Nonverbal Communication Messages conveyed through body movements, facial expressions, and the physical distance between the sender and receiver. Kinesics The study of body motions, such as gestures, facial configurations, and other movements of the body. Proxemics The study of physical space in interpersonal relationships. High-Context Cultures Cultures that rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues in communication. Low-Context Cultures Cultures that rely heavily on words to convey meaning in communication. Conflict A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. Functional Conflict Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance. Dysfunctional Conflict Conflict that hinders group performance. Cognitive Conflict Conflict that is task-oriented and related to differences in perspectives and judgments. Affective Conflict Conflict that is emotional and aimed at a person rather than an issue. Conciliator A trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent. Mediator A neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives. Arbitrator A third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement. Negotiation A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and try to agree upon the exchange rate for them. Distributive Bargaining Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win-lose solution. Integrative Bargaining Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution. BATNA The best alterative to a negatiated agreement; the outcome an individual faces if negatiations fail. Bargaining Zone The zone between each party's resistance point, assuming there is overlap in this range.