wrote "The Waste Land" ; portrays postwar European culture as a waste land.
overthrew the Newtonian view (classical physics) of the universe upon the Enlightenment tradition rested. Classic physics taught that the universe was a three-dimensional, objective reality, whose properties could be measured from an absolute reference point
an African American from St. Louis, delighted audiences dancing the Charleston wearing only a string of bananas around her waist, as she sang jazz favorites
theory of the evolutionary origins of life as presented in Origin of the Species and the Descent of Man was a key development. Although Darwin did not directly attack Christianity, the implications of his theory called into question the truth of biblical revelation, and hence Christianity.
the founder of psychoanalysis. Believed that reason and scientific inquiry made civilization possible, his conclusion that humans are motivated by primitive, irrational drives hidden deep in the subconscious tended to undermine the enlightenment image of humanity. He rejected both the Christian belief that evil was essentially a moral problem and the enlightenment's assumption that it was environmental problem.
principle of uniformitarianism by which the earth was thought to be millions of years old. His theory provided the immense time span required by darwin's theory, if it was to have any credibility.
German philosopher. Humans live in the universe without meaning. Humans are driven by dark instinctual drives, not motivated by reason
German school teacher and philosopher. He viewed western civilization as a living organism which, like any living organism, must pass through the stages of life from birth to death. The signs of degeneration were everywhere. Predicts the death of western civilization in Decline of the West.
Age of Anxiety
The twentieth century is often termed as age of anxiety because it was a century of change that left the future of European civilization in doubt
the enlightenment's view of the individual as an autonomous being making rational choices in a meaningful universe was gone, and with it optimism about the future of Western civilization. The individual was cut adrift in a cold, mysterious universe without coherent answer to the question "Who Am I?" At best, the individual was a random chance happening thrown up by an impersonal universe, whose ultimate reality was only molecules of which he or she was composed. Humans by nature are good
God is dead
Friedrich Nietzsche believed that God is dead. the result of Nietzche's teaching. He stated that God died and it was we who killed him by our hypocrisy. Our only hope was to recongize our meaninglessness
Nietzsche had prophesied the rise of supermen who would create new myths to take the place of God, who had been murdered by the advance of civilization.
which flowed out of dadism, sought reality in the unconscious, beyond the reach of reason. Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members.