He was a Spanish explorer who conquered the Native American civilization of the Aztecs in 1519 in what is now Mexico.
An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journies until the time of his death in 1503.
peace of augsburg
This was the treaty that was reached that ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars which also made Charles V recognize Lutheranism as a legitimate following
prince henry the navigator
This was the Portuguese Prince that gave steadfast financial and moral support to the navigators
vasco de gama
A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean
vasco nunez de balboa
Crossed the Isthmus of Panama and is considered first explorer to see Pacific Ocean from Americas, Spanish explorer who became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean in 1510 while exploring Panama
Portuguese explorer who found a sea route to the Spice Island by sailing around the American continent. His crew was the first to circumnavigate the world.
treaty of tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain
when spain gave landowners the right to use the labor of native americans who lived on their land
bartolome de las casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor, (476
top people, the ruling class, have to be born in spain/porugual, 100% spanish or Portuguese, usually returned to spain when term of office was over.
descendents of Spanish-born BUT born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status
joint stock company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
Catherine de' Medici
In 1533, at the age of fourteen, Caterina married Henry, second son of King Francis I and Queen Claude of France. Under the gallicised version of her name, Catherine de Médicis, she was Queen consort of France as the wife of King Henry II of France from 1547 to 1559.
French political faction with no strong religious ties that tried to manipulate political divisions in France for its own political gain.
son of Louis VII whose reign as king of France saw wars with the English that regained control of Normandy and Anjou and most of Poitou (1165-1223)
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
thirty years war
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
peace of westphalia
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
st. bartholomews day massacre
Begun 24 August 1572 and extending over several weeks, the most violent series of fights between French Catholics and Protestants, each side wanted control over the weak French government.