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American Pageant Chapters 10-13

Bill of Rights

a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)

Judiciary Act of 1789

In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.

John Jay

United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)

Alexander Hamilton

United States statesman and leader of the Federalists; as the first Secretary of the Treasury he establish a federal bank; was mortally wounded in a duel with Aaron Burr (1755-1804)

Funding at par

(GW)This meant that the federal government would pay off its debs at face value, plus accumulated interest which at the time had a total of $54 million. This included the federal government taking on the debts by the states and paying for it as a country. Hamilton's establishment of this act gave the country much needed unity because it brought the states together under the centralized government. This made paper money essentially useless do to inflation.

Tariffs

Taxes on imports or exports

Excise Tax

a tax on the manufacturing of an item. Helped Hamilton to achieve his theory on a strong central government, supported by the wealthy manufacturers. This tax mainly targeted poor Western front corn farmers (Whiskey). This was used to demonstrate the power of the Federal Government, and sparked the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794.

Bank of the United States

Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.

Jefferson position (Tenth Amendment)

Jefferson argued that creating a bank was unconstitutional because the Constitution never stated a bank could be made, and in his mind that meant it forbade it being created by the federal government, but was left to states rights to be made seperately by each state.

Strict interpretation

theory set forth by Thomas Jefferson that the federal government possesses only those powers that the US Constitution specifically allows... a narrow view of the constitution

Hamilton position (Elastic clause)

Hamilton thought it gave the federal government to pass reasonable legislature, like taxes

Loose interpretation

A way of INTERPRETING the Constitution that allows the Federal Gov't to take actions THAT the Constitution doesn't forbid it from taking.

Whiskey Rebellion

In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.

Federalist Party

1792-1816. Formed by Alexander Hamilton. Controlled the government until 1801. Wanted strong nationalistic government. Opposed by Democratic Republicans.

Democratic-Republican Party

political party led by Thomas Jefferson; it feared centralized political power, supported states' rights, opposed Hamilton's financial plan, and supported ties with France. It was heavily influenced by a agrarian interests in the southern states.

French Revolution

The second great democratic revolution, taking place in the 1790s, after the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The U.S. did nothing to aid either side. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799.

Neutrality Proclamation

Washington's declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.

Citizen Edmond Ganet

(1763-1834) French ambassador to the United States during the French Revolution., representative of France, came to US to gain war support and Jeffersonians wanted to follow...was kicked out of the country

Miami Confederacy/Chief Little Turtle

an alliance of 8 indian nations who terrorized americans who invaded their land. Little Turtle was their war chief. Supported by the British, who gave them firearms.

General Mad Anthony Wayne

Defeated Miamis at the Battle of Fallen Timbers when British refused to shelter them.

Treaty of Greenville

Gave America all of Ohio after General Mad Anthony Wayne battled and defeated the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. 1795 Allowed Americans to explore the area with peace of mind that the land belonged to America and added size and very fertile land to America.

Jay's Treaty with Britain

Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution. Britain agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley

Pinckney's Treaty with Spain

agreement between the united states and spain that changed floridas border and made it easier for american ships to use the port of new orleans

Washington's two-term tradition

George Washington retired after two-terms as president. Established a precedent for all of the following presidents (only exception was Franklin D. Roosevelt). Legally added to the Consititution in 1951.

Washington's Farewell Address

Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.

John Adams vs. Jefferson

problems for these presidents- dealing with war debt (election of 1796- president from one party -federalists- and a vice president from another party -democratic republicans-)

John Marshall

created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court

Talleyrand

the French foreign minister, whom which three American dipolmats seek to reach an agreement with, they are stopped by the French X, Y, and Z dipolmats and are asked for a bribe to speak with Talleyrand. Causes XYZ affair.

XYZ Affair

Incident that precipitated an undeclared war with France when thre French officials (identified as X, Y, and Z) demanded that American emissaries pay a bribe before negotiating disputes between the two countries.

Napoleon/Convention of 1800

Agreement which freed America from its alliance with France, forgave French $20 million in damages and resulted in Adams' losing a second term as president

Alien Laws

the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US

Sedition Act

Made it a crime to criticize the government or government officials. Opponents claimed that it violated citizens' rights to freedom of speech and freedom of the press, gauranteed by the First Amednment.

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.

Compact theory

claiming that the formation of the nation was through a compact by all of the states individually and that the national government is consequently a creation of the states

Nullification

the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress

Hamiltonian Federalists

strongly nationalistic; broad interpretation of the US Constitution,Wanted government controlled by the rich, well-born, and able, Feared undiluted democracy (the ignorant could be manipulated)

Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans

Pro French, farmers, strong state governments, low taxes, individual rights, small national government

John Adams

America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."

Electoral College

the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president

Aaron Burr

served as the 3rd Vice President of the United States. Member of the Republicans and President of the Senate during his Vice Presidency. He was defamed by the press, often by writings of Hamilton. Challenged Hamilton to a duel in 1804 and killed him.

Revolution of 1800

Jefferson's view of his election to presidency. Jefferson claimed that the election of 1800 represented a return to what he considered the original spirit of the Revolution. Jefferson's goals for his revolution were to restore the republican experiment, check the growth of government power, and to halt the decay of virtue that had set in under Federalist rule.

Thomas Jefferson

Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Lived at Monticello. Wrote the Declaration of Independence. Second governor of Virgina. Third president of the United States. Designed the buildings of the University of Virginia.

the repeal of the Alien and Sedition Acts

Democratic-Republicans maintained that the acts were an unconstitutional weapon to suppress political dissent, and the acts themselves proved wildly unpopular

repeal of the Excise tax

Jefferson hated the excise tax because it bred bureaucrats and weighed heavily on the farmers. He persuaded congress to repeal it.

Albert Gallatin

He was Jefferson's secretary. Jefferson and Gallatin believed that to pay the interest on debt, there would have to be taxes. Taxes would suck money from industrious farmers and put it in the hands of wealthy creditors.

Judiciary Act of 1801

a law that increased the number of federal judges, allowing President John Adams to fill most of the new posts with Federalists

John Marshall

1755-1835. U.S. Chief Supreme Court Justice. Oversaw over 1000 decisions, including Marbury v Madison and McCulloch v. Maryland.

William Marbury

"Midnight Judge" appointed in the Judiciary Act of 1801. Sued government because he was never appointed, which resulted in Marbury v. Madison and Judicial Review.

James Madison Secretary of State

Involved in the Marbury vs. Madison case. Madison had wanted to stop the midnight judges from being appointed.

Marbury v. Madison

The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).

Samuel Chase

supreme court justice of whom the Democratic-Republican Congress tried to remove in retaliation of the John Marshall's decision regarding Marbury; was not removed due to a lack of votes in the Senate.

Barbary Pirates

Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations

Tripolitan War

instigated by the pasha of Tripoli who was disatisfied with his share of protection money; Jefferson reluctantly rose to the challenge and sent the U.S. Marine Corps to fight; after four years, Jefferson extorted a peace treaty with a bargain price of $60,000 which was used as ransom payments for captured Americans

New Orleans/right of deposit

Vital to farmers who floated their produce down the Mississippi to its mouth, there it await ocean-going vessels. After Spaniards at New Orleans withdrew the right of deposit (ceded the land to France), anger boiled-up amongst colonists.

Louisiana Territory

Land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains purchased from France for 15 million dollars. It doubled the size of the US at the time, getting more land than the US wanted.

Napoleon

A French general, political leader, and emperor of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Bonaparte rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor in 1804. He conquered much of Europe but lost two-thirds of his army in a disastrous invasion of Russia. After his final loss to Britain and Prussia at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic Ocean.

James Monroe/Robert Livingston

men sent by Jefferson to buy New Orleans but instead Purchased all of the Louisiana Territory

Santo Domingo

Sugar-rich island where Toussaint L'Ouverture's slave rebellion disrupted Napoleon's dreams of a vast New World empire

Toussaint L'Ouverture

was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. In a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.

Louisiana Purchase

The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.

Meriwether Lewis

United States explorer and soldier who lead led an expedition from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River (1774-1809)

William Clark

United States explorer who (with Meriwether Lewis) led an expedition from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River; Clark was responsible for making maps of the area (1770-1838)

Sacajawea

She accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition during its journey to the Pacific Ocean between 1804 and 1806. She made important contributions to the success of the Corps of Discovery: she helped guide the expedition through unfamiliar territory and she helped translate when the expedition encountered Indian tribes.

Zebulun Pike

was an American beet farmer and explorer for whom Pikes Peak in Colorado is named

Aaron Burr conspiracies

Joined with a group of Federalists to plan the secession of New England and New York . Alexander Hamilton foiled and exposed this plot. Burr was enraged and challenged Hamilton to a duel (now infamous in history-Burr killed Hamilton)

1804 election

Federalist Charles C. Pickney gained 14 electoral votes, while Republican candidate Thomas Jefferson gained 162

British Orders in Council

A law passed by the English while fighting the French in 1793. The British closed off all port vessels that France went through so they couldn't get supplies, but American ships were seized also and Americans were impressed into the British navy, leading to the War of 1812.

Impressment of sailors

kidnapping of many U.S. sailors. Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans were furious. They wanted to either go to war with England or at least halt trade with them. Calmer Hamiltonians (Federalists) stayed the course of neutrality. War would do the infant U.S. no good.

Chesapeake incident

An Incident that took place in 1807 off the coast of Virginia. A royal frigate overhauled a U.S frigate and demanded the surrender of four alleged deserters. The American commander refused the request. The British warship thereupon fired three devastating broadsides at close range killing three Americans and wounding eighteen. Significance: This incident aggravated the Americans and raised tension between the two countries. It also was a major event leading to the war of 1812.

Embargo Act

Act that forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain. The act slowed the economy of New England and the south. The act was seen as one of many precursors to war.

Non-Intercourse Act

1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.

Two-term tradition

Washington left after two terms of office and set a precedent that was followed by all until FDR

James Madison President

The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.

Macon's Bill No. 2

1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.

War Hawks

Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.

Henry Clay

United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states (1777-1852)

Tecumseh

A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.

General William Henry Harrison

He led the militia assault upon Tecumseh's village at Tippecanoe Creek in October 1811. Then, after the British had captured Detroit in the summer of 1812, he took charge of efforts to halt the British advance. After recapturing Detroit in late September 1813, he pursued the retreating British forces into Canada. At the Battle of the Thames in October of that same year, British troops along with their Native American allies, were so soundly defeated that they never posed a threat to the security of the Northwest Territory again. (Tecumseh was killed in the battle.) In 1840, he became the first Whig President, winning the election with a "log cabin" and "hard cider" appeal to the common people. The 68-year-old caught a cold at his inauguration and died after serving only one month in office.

Battle of Tippecanoe

Battle between Americans and Native Americans. Tecumseh and the Prophet attempted to oppress white settlement in the West, but defeated by William Henry Harrison. Led to talk of Canadian invasion and served as a cause to the War of 1812.

war declaration 1812

Madison believed war with Britain was inevitable. There was a close vote becuase there were deep divisions whether America should go to war with Britain. Had no reasonable sources for war against the strongest empire in the world.

Invasion of Canada 1813

Poorly planned and executed military action made by America that resulted in defeat by the British, marked the beginning of action in the war of 1812. 3-pronged assault that was meant to "divide and conquer".

USS Constitution

warship which defeated the British Warship Guerriere in 1812 -- called "Old Ironsides"

Admiral Oliver Perry

Won Battle of Lake Erie, gave US control of trade, supplies out west.

Battle of the Thames

William Henry Harrison pushed up the river Thames into Upper Canada and on October 4, 1813, won a victory notable for the death of Tecumseh, who was serving as a brigadier general in the British army. This battle resulted in no lasting occupation of Canada, but weakened and disheartened the Indians of the Northwest.

Thomas Macdonough/Plattsburgh

- heroic naval battle forced British to retreat

Burning of Washington

took place on August 24, 1814, during the War of 1812 between the British Empire and the United States of America. British forces occupied Washington, D.C. and set fire to many public buildings following the American defeat at the Battle of Bladensburg

Fort McHenry/Francis Scott Key

During the War of 1812 on September 13-14, Fort McHenry withstood a 25-hour bombardment by the British Vice-Admiral Alexander Cochane and his fleet, which prompted the famous "Star-spangled Banner," by Francis Scott Key when he saw the flag still standing.

General Andrew Jackson

General from Tennesee, won a series of battles that gained him fame, Federalist and aid to washington, deals with nations finances, combines states debts to make national debt

Battle of New Orleans

Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.

Treaty of Ghent

December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.

John Quincy Adams

Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.

Blue-Light Federalists

term used by people who believed that certain federalists signaled the british when americans were coming

Hartford Convention

Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence

Nationalism

Political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation-a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, nationalism was a force for unity in western Europe

Washington Irving

American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).

James Fenimore Cooper

American novelist who is best remembered for his novels of frontier life, such as The Last of the Mohicans (1826).

North American Review

Magazine published after War 1812 began publication in 1815. Created a sense of nationalism

Second Bank of the United States

chartered in 1816, much like its predecessor of 1791 but with more capital; it could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business.

Stephen Decatur

burned the USS Philadelphia rather than letting the Barbary Pirates get a hold of it

Tariff of 1816

This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.

Henry Clay

Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state

American System

an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.

Erie Canal

A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.

James Monroe

He was the fifth President of the United States. He is the author of the Monroe Doctrine. Proclaimed that the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars

Era of Good Feelings

a newspaper term used to describe the two terms of President James Monroe. during this period, ther was only one major political party, the democratic-republicans; it was therefore assumed that political discord had evaporated.

Panic of 1819

Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of Europena demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.

Wildcat banks

The banks of the western frontier. These banks were hit hard by the Panic of 1819. The Bank of the United States' response to the panic of 1819 made the nationalist bank a financial devil in the eyes of wildcat banks.

Cumberland Road

The first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West.

Tallmadge Amendment

This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.

Missouri Compromise

an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories

John Marshall

created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court

Loose construction

a person who interprets the constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take actions that the constitution does not specifically forbid it from taking.

McCulloch v. Maryland

1819, Cheif justice john marshall limits of the US constition and of the authority of the federal and state govts. one side was opposed to establishment of a national bank and challenged the authority of federal govt to establish one. supreme court ruled that power of federal govt was supreme that of the states and the states couldnt interfere

Cohens v. Virginia

Supreme Court case which asserted the right of the Supreme Court to review the decision of state supreme courts

Gibbons v. Ogden

Regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government

Fletcher v. Peck

Supreme Court case which protected property rights and asserted the right to invalidate state laws in conflict with the Constitution

Darmouth College v. Woodward

1819 - This decision declared private corporation charters to be contracts and immune form impairment by states' legislative action. It freed corporations from the states which created them.

Daniel Webster

Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.

Oregon Territory

territory of Oregon, Washington, and portions of what became British Columbia, Canada; land claimed by both U.S. and Britain and held jointly under the Convention of 1818

Treaty of 1818

it established the 49th parallel fixing the northern border between the US and Canada from Minnesota to Oregon

Jackson's Florida campaign

Jackson went into Florida under false pretenses, hung indians and the British that tried to help them, and seized Spanish posts.

Florida Purchase Treaty

1819 - Under the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain sold Florida to the U.S., and the U.S. gave up its claims to Texas. gave american southwest to spain

Canning proposal

This proposal, made by British foreign secretary George Canning, proposed that America and Britain join forces in preventing the European despots from destroying the new Latin American republics.

Monroe Doctrine

A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.

Era of Good Feelings

a newspaper term used to describe the two terms of President James Monroe. during this period, ther was only one major political party, the democratic-republicans; it was therefore assumed that political discord had evaporated.

1824 election

No candidate won majority of votes so because of the 12th amendment, House of Representation had to decide. Henry Clay had the least votes and was the swing vote, he was taken off the ticket, Crawford had a stroke so he was off as well. The last was Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams. Andrew Jackson was more popular but JQA with the support of Clay was able to win, people called this a corrupt bargain and Jackson was angry.

Corrupt Bargain

In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.

John Quincy Adams

6th President of the United States

1828 election

"Old Hickory" Jackson won. He received 178 electoral votes, Adams won only 83

Old Hickory

Nickname given to president Andrew Jackson, 1829-1837, for his toughness. Jackson was a veteran of the Creek War, and a hero of the battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812. He also had fought and won a number of duels.

spoils system

the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power

Tariff of Abominations

The bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor, thus favoring Northern manufacturers. In the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them and causing more sectionalist feelings.

Denmark Vesey/slave rebellion

A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started.

John C. Calhoun

The 7th Vice President of the United States and a leading Southern politician from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. He was an advocate of slavery, states' rights, limited government, and nullification.

South Carolina Exposition

written by John C. Calhoun denouncing the 1828 Tariff as unconstitutional and that the states should declare it null and void

Nullification

the states'-rights doctrine that a state can refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by the United States Congress

Clay's compromise tariff

To compromise and prevent Jackson from crushing S.C. and becoming more popular, the president's rival, Henry Clay, proposed a compromise bill that would gradually reduce the Tariff of 1832 by about 10% over a period of eight years, so that by 1842 the rates would be down to 20% to 25%.

Force Bill

1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.

Cherokee Nation/Sequoyah

A distinct community in its own territory, where the laws of Georgia had no force. Sequoyah created a written language for the Cherokees- a first in Native American history

Five Civilized Tribes

Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; "civilized" due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion

Supreme Court - support of Indian rights

When Cherokee indians came to court to plea for their right to stay in Georgia, Marshall declared they were legally allowed to stay and defended them.

Indian Removal Act

Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.

Trail of Tears

The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.

Bureau of Indian Affairs

to manage Indian removal to western lands, Congress approved the creation of a new government agency

Black Hawk War

In the early 1830's, white settlers in western Illinois and eastern Iowa placed great pressure on the Native American people there to move west of the Mississippi River. Native American tribes visited Chief Black Hawk of the Sauk tribe. Black Hawk lead a rebellion against the United States. The war started in Illinois and spread to the Wisconsin Territory. It ended in August 1832 when Illinois militia slaughtered more than 200 Sauk and Fox people.

Seminole War

For seven years the Seminole Indians, joined by runaway black slaves, waged a bitter guerrilla war that took the lives of some fifteen hundred. Their spirit was broken in 1837, when the American field commander treacherously seized their leader, Osceola, under the flag of truce. The war dragged on for 5 more years, but the Seminole were defeated

Bank of the United States

Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.

Nicholas Biddle

President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.

Webster/Clay and Recharter Bill

clay calls for an early recharter, which passes through congress. To Clay this is a win-win situation because if Jackson passes the bill then the bank is saved, if he vetoes then Clay will use it against Jackson in upcoming election. Jackson vetoes this. Clay was wrong and people hate the bank and dont care

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