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The skeleton does not

store red blood cells

Osseous tissue is a(an)_______tissue.

Connective

These are all tissues that are a part of a long bone except (osseous tissue, nervous tissue, adipose tissue, cartilage, transitional epithelium)

Transitional epithelium

This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "1" represent

Marrow cavity

This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "4" represent?

epiphyseal line

This images shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "5" represent?

articular cartilage

The expanded head at each end of a long bone is called?

an ephiphysis

A bone covered externally with a sheath called______, whereas the internal surface is lined with________.

periosteum: endosteum

__________are bone- forming cells.

Osteoblasts

When_______become enclosed in lacunae, they become cells called_________.

osteoblasts: osteocytes

This image shows the histology of osseous tissue . Label "2" represents _______, which is (are)_____.

lacunae; sites of residence of osteocytes

Which of these is an inorganic component of the bone matrix?

hydroxyapatite

Spicules and trabeculae are found in _______.

spongy bone

Red bone marrow does not contain_____.

yellow bone marrow.

________provide(s) hardness to bones, whereas______provide(s) some degree of flexibility.

Hydroxyapatite and other minerals; proteins

______have a ruffled border with many deep infoldings of the plasma membrane, whereas ______have long, thin, fingerlike cytoplasmic processes.

Osteoblasts; osteocytes

What would you find in the marrow cavity of the diaphysis of an adult humerus (arm bone)?

yellow bone marrow

Which one of the following bone cells would have the greatest number of lysosomes?

Osteoclasts

_______are common in compact bone but rarely seen in spongy bone.

Central canals

Intramembranous ossification produces the

flat bones of the skull

In endochondral ossification, the precursor connective tissue is_______, which is replaced by bone.

hyaline cartilage

The______is a marginal zone of the epiphyseal plate where, in children and adolescents, bone can be seen replacing the hyaline cartilage.

metaphysis

A chondroplastic dwarfism is a heriditary condition in which the long bones of the limbs fail to elongate normally because of reduced hyperplasia and hypertrophy of cartilage in teh

epiphyseal plate

Chondrocytes multiply in this zone of the metaphysis.

zone of cell proliferation

Mature bones are remodeled throughout life by employing

appositional growth.

Bone elongation is a result of

cartilage growth

Wolff's law of bone explains the effect of

mechanical stress on bone remodeling.

A growing long bone in a child has only two areas of cartilage at the epiphysis. These two areas areas are

elastic cartilage and epiphyseal plate.

_______is the process of dissolving bone and returning its minerals to the bloodstream.

Resorption

Which of the following exemplifies a positive feedback process happening in bone mineral deposition?

The first few crystals to form attract more calcium and phosphate

Phosphate is necessary for all of the following except (atp, dna, phospolipids, rna, amino acids)

Amino acids

Calcium plays an essential role in all of the following except (muscle contraction, exocytosis, blood clotting, dna synthesis, communication among neurons)

DNA synthesis

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) does not

lower blood calcium

______is synthesized by the combined action of the skin, kidneys and liver, and is important to the deposition of bone.

Calcitrol

Which of these is not an effect of calcitrol?

cartilage growth in the epiphyseal plate

_______does not put women at risk of hypocalcemia.

Removal of the thyroid gland

Blood CA2+ deficiency stimulates_______secretion, which leads to_______.

parathyroid hormone; increased osteoclast activity

Arteriosclerosis is one example of ectopic ossification, which means

abnormal calcification of a tissue.

Hypocalcemia can cause

spasms

If a thyroid tumor secreted an excessive amount of calcitonin, we would except

an elevated level of osteoblast activity.

A soft callus forms during

the healing of a fracture.

Osteoporosis is most common in elderly women because of the lack of_______, which would otherwise inhibit_______.

estrogen; osteoclast activity

A fracture in which the bone is broken in three or more pieces is called______in children and ______in adults.

comminuted

The results of calcium and phosphate levels in blood too low for normal deposition is a softness of the bones called_____in children and ______in adults.

rickets; osteomalacia

Bone protrudes through the skin in a fracture called

open

A pathologic fracture

is a break in a bone that happens repeatedly

Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in the healing of a bone fracture

hematoma formation-> soft callus formation-> hard callus formation-> bone remodeling

Patches of fibrocartilage formed in the healing of a fracture are called______, whereas the bony collar formed around the fracture is called_____.

soft callus; hard callus

________affects more people than any other bone disease.

Osteoporosis

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