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for Tarnoff in Mt. Sac oceanography course

The scientist method included all of the following EXCEPT

validation of theory

The Four principle ocean of the Earth are the

Atlantic, Arctic, Indian and Pacific Ocean

Fish first appeared

during the Ordovician Period of the Paleozoic Era

Heterotrophic organisms can make their own own food from inorganic carbon sources.

False

Free oxygen was present in the Earth's primordial atmosphere.

False

The salinity of the oceans has been steadily increasing.

False

Radioactive isotopes can sometimes be used to determine

absolute age of the rock.

Anaerobic organisms require oxygen to survive.

False

Organisms that break down organic molecules and release energy are called:

heterotrophic organisms

When the Earth cooled, the layers of the earth separated based on density differences.

True

Earth developed the first ocean by about 4 million years ago.

True

Radiometric age dating is used to determine the age of most rock layers.

True

The separation of the Earth into layers was the result of the

differing densities of the rock and mineral materials.

Free oxygen in our atmosphere is important to the development and maintenance of life on Earth because oxygen

is necessary for photosynthesis to occur

The "Age of Discovery" began with

Christopher Columbus' discovery of the "New World."

Carbon dating is used to determine the absolute age of a rock or fossil.

True

In general, the chemical composition of ocean water has remained constant through geologic time.

True

The nebular hypothesis suggests that

all bodies in the solar system formed from an enormous gas cloud

Which of the following statements regarding continental and oceanic crust is TRUE?

Continental crust is thicker and less dense than oceanic crust.

One distinction between an "ocean" and a "sea" is that a sea

All of the above are correct.

The Earth formed 4.6 billion years ago.

True

Oceanic crust is primarily:

basalt.

Vikings led by Thor Heyerdahl established temporary colonies in North America.

False

All of the following are TRUE concerning the deepest part of the ocean except:

the depth of the trench is estimated at 12,500 meters.

The Ming Dynasty ships used magnetic compasses similar to those used today.compasses similar to those used today.

True

Vine and Matthews determined that new ocean floor was being produced at ocean ridges by examining

the magnetic pattern on the seafloor.

Deep ocean trenches are associated with

subduction zones

Coral reefs

include atolls, barrier, and fringing reefs.

The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is an example of a

divergent boundary.

At divergent plate boundaries, only shallow focus earthquakes can be found.

True

Oceans become deeper moving away from ridges due to

thermal contraction of hot asthenosphere.

Paleomagnetism confirms that at particular times in the geologic past Earth has had more than one magnetic north pole.

False

The Hawaiian Islands are located where the Pacific plate is

moving over a hot spot

Climate distribution on Earth is primarily controlled by

latitude

All continents fit together with the least number of overlaps and gaps when the continents are matched along:

contours at around 2000 meters in depth.

Convergent plate boundaries occur when tectonic plates move in opposite directions.

False

Moving from oceanic ridge to oceanic trench, the thickness of the lithosphere

increases in proportion to the distance.

Iceland is geologically active because it sits above a hotspot and is located along the mid-Atlantic ridge.

True

The relatively young age of the seafloor supports the idea that subduction must take place.

True

Differences in height between continental crust and oceanic crust are explained by

isostasy

Deep focus earthquakes are often associated with deep-sea trenches.

True

The San Andreas Fault

is a continental transform fault

Fossils of ancient polar plants are currently found near the equator because the

plants lived near the poles, but land masses have drifted to current locations.

Water depth decreases as you move away from the mid-ocean ridge.

False

Confirmation of seafloor spreading was supported by the

age of seafloor

All of the following are true of the Wilson Cycle except

the Wilson Cycle is a technique used to date ocean sediments.

New crust is formed at trenches and old crust is subducted at ridges.

False

Earthquakes are common along fracture zones.

False

Which of the following is characteristic of oceanic-oceanic convergent plate boundaries?

volcanic island arcs

The oldest rocks are located at mid-ocean ridges.

False

Old lithosphere is destroyed in association with

deep-sea trenches

New lithosphere is produced in association with

mid-ocean ridges

Underwater avalanches of muddy water mixed with rocks and debris are:

turbidity currents

The most gradual change in slope in the ocean can be found at the

abyssal plain

Directly seaward of the continental shelf is a more steeply sloping region called the

continental slope

Due to the very harsh environment, few organisms are found in association with hydrothermal vents.

False

The instrument that emits a high-frequency sound beam to measure the depth of the ocean developed in the 1950s is the

PDR

Trenches change their position over time.

True

All of the following are considered part of the continental margin except the

fracture zone

The two relatively flat areas on the hypsometric curve represent

some interior continental areas/coastal plains and abyssal plains

Seamounts are the feature labeled

3

Seamounts form from ancient tablemounts

False

The most rapid change in slope in the ocean is found at the

oceanic trench

A sediment-laden current that flows off of the continental shelf is called a turbidity current

True

Sediments of the continental rise can exhibit characteristics similar to those formed by rivers on land.

True

Subduction zones appear to remain nearly stationary over long periods of time.

False

These organisms are most likely found in

hydrothermal vents

Mid-ocean ridges are rises that occupy a small portion of the deep ocean basin, only around 10%.

False

Abyssal hills are only visible in the Pacific Ocean because

they are higher in the Pacific than in the other ocean basins

Tablemounts are the features labeled

1

The correct order of marine provinces from the coast to the mid-ocean ridge is

shelf, slope, rise, abyssal plain

Passive continental margins are characterized by all of the following except

deep-sea trenches

Submarine canyons were most likely formed by

erosion by turbidity currents

The Pacific Ring of Fire is the seismically active area at the margins of the Pacific plate where earthquakes and volcanoes are common

False

With respect to mid-ocean ridges, transform faults are

perpendicular to the ridge axis.

The type of marine sediment that forms the thickest deposits world-wide is

neritic coarse lithogenous sediment deposits

Sediments produced as a result of chemical reactions in seawater are called

hydrogenous

Sediments produced by plants and animals in the sea are called

biogenous

Which of the following contains silica (SiO2)

radiolarians

Calcium carbonate, phosphates, and manganese may precipitate out of solution to form deposits on the ocean floor.

True

All of the following are lithogenous sediments except

diatom ooze

Organisms that live on the ocean floor may be responsible for keeping manganese nodules from being buried in the sediment.

True

Tektites are glassy rock fragments of cosmic origin.

True

Sediments with an extraterrestrial origin are called

cosmogenous.

The sediments that are produced in areas of high primary productivity are indicated by the number(s):

2 & 3.

Phosphate nodules are found on the continental shelf.

True

Sediments derived form preexisting rocks are called

lithogenous

Ocean sediments provide all of the following mineral resources except

Coal

Calcareous shells will not accumulate on the ocean floor when the water depth exceeds about 4500 meters (around 15,000 feet)

True

A glacial deposit is well-sorted

False

Which of the following contains calcium carbonate (CaCO3)?

foraminiferans

Calcium carbonate is most likely to dissolve in water with which characteristics?

lots of carbon dioxide and cold temperatures

High energy environments are most likely to contain which one of the following?

large particles such as gravel

A pelagic clay contains lots of material that settles to the seafloor through the water column and are:

less than 30% biogenous material.

The major force bringing continental sediments to the open ocean is (are)

wind

Beach sand is usually well-sorted.

True

Calcareous oozes are represented by the number(s);

4

The organisms in this photograph would most likely produce oceanic sediments that are:

calcareous

The deposition of radiolarian oozes is affected by the carbonate compensation depth

False

Sediments found on continental margins are called

neritic

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