colony that is under the authority of the king and ruled by governor appointed by the king
a crown-appointed governor would name leading planters to advisory council
A colony granted by king or queen to an individual (rich, trusted English elites) or a group that has full governing rights.
was granted a large tract of land north of the Potomac River, east of Chesapeake Bay, He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.
Act for Religious Toleration
AKA the Toleration Act, passed in 1649 by the assembly of the Maryland colony. the act allowed freedom of worship for all Christians in Maryland, kept peace between Catholics and Protestants. The second law requiring religious tolerance in the British North American colonies and created the first legal limitations on hate speech in the world.
Third Anglo-Powhatan War
(1644-1646) led by Opechancanough, killed five hundred of the colony's 8000 whites. Agreed to remain in boundaries set by English Government
Nthaniel Bacon leading 300 whites, newly come wealthy planter, massacred peaceful indians
Governor of Massachusetts Bay delivered an essay, "A Model of Christian Charity"
A Model of Christian Charity
This spelled out the Massachusetts Bay colony's social and political ideals. It declared that Massachusetts "shall be as a city upon a hill, the eyes of all people are upon us." The settlers would build a harmonious, godly community in which individuals would subordinate their personal interests to a higher purpose. The result would be an example for all the world and would particularly inspire England to live up to its role as God's "elect nation".
"New England Way"
The Puritan commonwealth was based on cooperation between church and state
a Separatist minister who arrived in 1631, aroused elite anxieties by advocating religious toleration and the complete separation of Church and State
Second major challenge to the New England Way, part of Boston congregation, criticized the clergy for judging prospective church members
crowning of King Charles II
King Philip's War
1675, a series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks
dispersed the Hurons and other French allies, incorporating many members of these nations into their own ranks.
(dutch name for manor lords) formed a landed elite second in wealthy only to the Carolina rice planters
the proprietor of the last unallocated tract of his American domain
Religious tolerant people
Robert Cavelier de Ka Salle
uper-class adventurer, descended the entire Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. Claimed the basin for Louis XIV
most successful Indian uprising
Elizabeth Clarke Freake
wife, mother, grandmother, manager of prominent household, church member, leader of Boston's community
The largest estuary (section of a river meeting the sea) in the United States. It lies off the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by Maryland and Virginia.
House of Burgesses, county-court system
two house legislature, members with lifetime appointments
Typhoid fever and malaria
endemic as sailors and slaves arrive from Africa, brining a particular virulent form and carried it into marshy lowlands, spread by mosquitoes
Under racial slavery, the slave owner is distinguished in physical type from the enslaved, such that no white person could ever drop into a state of slavery, and justified by the belief that black people were born to be servants to white people.
Great Migration to New England
a group of wealthy Puritans successfully petitioned the crown for a charter to colonize at Massachusetts Bay. Four hundred colonists to Salem.
crowned in 1625, reversed policy of tolerating Puritans and began eliminating Puritan influence within the Church of England
founded 1636, its 201 graduates included 111 ministers, making New England the only colony that has clergy and college-educated elites
meeting in colonial New England where settlers discussed and voted on issues.
form new towns because their distance to the towns center limit their influence in town affairs
A Puritan church policy of 1662, which allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members. Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.
Native American chief who fought against English colonists in the King Philip's War
Salem Witchcraft Trials
trials in Salem Massachusetts in 1691, that led to the deaths of twenty people after young girls charged people with practicing witchcraft.
Refers to the soaring demand for a sweetener that resulted in high profits for producers, large scale plantation production in Brazil and the West Indies, and increased slave trade that resulted in about millions of Africans being brought to the new world.
Anthony Ashley Cooper
Convinced proprietors to finance expeditions to Carolina from England. He created a colony and called the capitol city Charles Town.
The production of rice
Indian Slave Trade
Slave trade led by South Carolinians in which Indian captives were traded to other Indian tribes as sacrifices. The trade itself war marred by captives of many different tribes all residing in Charlestown
the last Dutch colonial administrator of New Netherland
was established in 1638, taken over by New Netherlands (the Dutch) in 1655 and encompassed southern NJ, parts of PA and Delaware
Company of New France
joint stock company
monopoly of fur trade and control of the New France
An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Coureurs de bois
a French or French-Indian trapper of North America, esp. of Canad
missionaries who Spain gave the task of converting the natives; This job had previously been that of the conquistadors.
Diego de Vargas
commander of the Spanish army that recaptured New Mexico from the Pueblo people in 1692 (1643-1704)