Disease of the feet or legs in cattle is the ____ most common pathology.
What is the most common cause of of lameness in cattle?
Lesions involving the _____ of cattle compromise almost 89% of the total cases of lameness and 85% of those cases are specifically the lateral ______.
The front _____ digit carries the most weight in the front of cattle while the rear______ digit carries the most weight in the hind.
Dairy cattle should have their hooves trimmed about every ___ months.
The sole thickness in cattle should be about ______ inches.
Vertical crack is related to a very ______ hoof wall, the tx is a _____ being placed on the _____ digit to prevent weight from being placed on the _____ digit.
dry; wooden block; sound; cracked
Other than grain overload, _____ and _____ predispose cattle feet to laminitis.
______ laminitis is characterized by horizontal grooves and upward deviation of the dorsal hoof wall.
The two tx for acute laminitis in cattle is ______ or _____.
Corns are aka as ______ in cattle
A growth between the medial and lateral digit that can become raw and painful that is more common in the male is likely to be?
corn/ interdigital fibroma
What is the primary and sx tx of interdigital fibromas in cattle?
trim and balance hooves; sx removal afterwards
Interdigital fibroma surgery is healed by?
Not to be confused with interdigital fibromas, hairy foot/heel wart is aka?
______ is thought to cause digital dermatits.
What is the treatment for hairy heel wart?
T/F there is an autogenous vaccine or commercial made vaccine for hairy heel wart.
Sudden, non-weight bearing lameness in cattle with digital pulses and heat and swelling along with discoloration of the sole of the hoof is likely to be?
Sole abscess are ______ and should be treated ______.
If a horse has a sole abscess and hasnt has a tetanus booster in the last _____ months, he should get one.
Abx for ______ are not recommended unless it is draining out of the _______. Why?
sole abscess; coronary band; abx have a hard time penetrating the hoof structures
Sole abscesses have a good px if the lameness is resolved in_____, and you only need to treat for ______.
12-24hrs; 7-10 days
If an animals temp. gets above_____ then you can say the sole abscess is ______.
Cattle with sole abscesses will be ________weight bearing on the affected digit and all the weight is on the contralateral ______ digit.
After you have drained and debrided the hoof for a sole abscess, the wound is healed by?
Any infection of the digit that has spread to the bone or joint is a candidate for? (2)
You must destroy the ____ and ____for arthrodesis of the coffin joint to work and must have ____ to___ contact for the sx to be successufl.
articular cartilage; subchondral bone; bone to bone
Septic arthritis of the distal and proximal patstern joints and traumatic injuries to the digit are the most common reasons for?
The most common joint in cattle to be affected by septic arthritis is the?
distal interphlangyeal /coffin joint
Most digit amputations take place at the level of _____.
A _____ and _______ anesthesia is the protocol for digit amputation.
tourniquet; regional (via lidocaine)
How long can you leave the tourniquet on for regional anesth. in the distal limb?
How can you prevent neuropraxia from the tourniquet for regional anesth?
padding under it
Besides lidocaine, ______ abx are a good choice to inject during digit amputation.
How can you ensure the hoof has adequate analgesia during regional anesth.?
When amputating the digit at the level of P1 you want to leave as much ____as possible to help with support of the soft tissue.
Digit amputation at the level of p1 is only done if there is no ______ in p1.
Generally animals that are _____ have a worse px for digit amputation.
The _____ ______ digit has the least success with digit amputation.
P2 and P3, navicular bursa, navicular bone, ddf and sheath as well as the proximal interphalangeal joint are all structures that can be affected when the animal has _______ septic arthritis.
distal interphalyngeal joint
Animals with septic DIJ's are probably not going to be seen with an _____ presentation, the average time after lameness and before tx is one month.
What are the two options for DIJ septic arthritis?
amputation; faciliated anklyosis
Most animals with DIJ septic arthritis are _____ lame.
Pododermatitis, white line dz, interdigital necrobacilosis, interdigital puncture wounds, and periarticular wounds are the top casues of?
DIJ septic arthritis
A key clinical sign to DIJ septic arthritis is a _______.
open draining tract
What tool is used to make an arthrotomy incision to sx tx DIJ septic arthritis?
What should you do besides remove the subchondral bone when performing a facilitated anklyosis for DIJ septic arthitis?
_____ of the joint post sx for septic arthrits of the DIJ should be done often.
_____ fusion after facilitated anklyosis of the DIJ for septic arthritis marks the end of the convalescent period.
A successful outcome for facilitated anklyosis of the DIJ is defined as having?
no lameness ; return to production; normal growth rate
Greater longevity, better locomotion, and longer production life are the reasons that ______ is better than ______ for problems with the DIJ.
More expensive, more post-op therapy, and slower return to production are the disadvantages of ______ over ______.
A heavy animal with a rear lateral digit infection or a front medial digit infection would benefit more from a ______ than a______ because why?
ankylosis; amputation; amputations on the digits that carry the most weight of a limb are assoc. with a poorer px
Total luxations of the pastern joint of a horse will require ______ and _____ of the joint.
____ ring bone is defined by advanced osteoarthritic changes ( periarticular and extraarticular new bone deposition, narrowed cartilage space, and subchondral sclerosis) of the pastern joint while ____ ring bone affects the coffin joint.
High ring bone is aka _____ of the pastern joint.
Low ring bone is aka _____ of the coffin joint.
The medical tx for high and low ring bone is ____ and ____.
Natural ______ from any ring bone is unlikely which is why sx is the tx of choice.
What is the tx for high and low ring bone?
arthrodesis of the paster/coffin joints
High ringbone, luxation of the pastern, fracture of the second phalanx, and septic arthritis of the pastern in the horse are all reasons for?
arthrodesis of the pastern joint
3 parallel screws, 2 screws in a crossed fashion, and 1 or 2 plates on the dorsal pastern bone are the top three techniques for?
arthrodesis of the pastern joint
What device is used to remove as much damaged bone as possible before arthrodesis of the pastern joint?
_____ cause a substantial increase in stability of the pastern and are often considered the preferred technique for proximal interphalangeal arthrodesis in horses.
Generally pastern arthrodesis is more successful in the _____limb (80%) vs the ____ limb(60%) in horses.
Ring bone or DJD of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints should not be confused with ______ which is calcification of the collateral or ungal cartilages lateral to the coffin bone.