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35 Respiratory System - terms

Adventitious Breath Sound

Abnormal sound, including sibilant wheezes, sonorous wheezes, fine and course crackles, pleural friction rubs, and stridor

asthma

Condition characterized by intermittent airway obstruction due to antigen antibody reaction

atelectasis

collapse of a lung or portion of a lung

audible wheeze

Wheeze that can be heard without the aid of a telescope

bronchial sound

Loud, high-pitched, hollow-sounding breath sound normally heard over the sternum, longer on expiration than inspiration

bronchiectasis

Lung disorder characterized by chronic dilation of the bronchi

bronchitis

Inflammation of the bronchial treea ccompanied by hypersecretion of mucous

bronchovesicular sound

Breath sound normally heard in the area of the scapula and near the sternum; medium in pitched blowing sound with inspiratory and expiratory phases of equal length.

caseation

Process by where the center of the primary tubercle formed in the lungs as a result of tuberculosis becomes soft and cheese-like due to decreased perfusion

cavitation

.Process by whereby a cavity is created in the lung tissue through the liquefication and rupture of a primary tubercle

chemoreceptor

Repector that monitors the levels of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and pH in the blood.

coarse crackle (rales)

Moist, low-pitched crackling and gurgling lung sound of long duration

diffusion

.Process whereby a substance moves from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

emphysema

.Lung disease wherein air accumulates in the tissues of the lungs

empyema

A collection of pus in the space between the lung and the inner surface of the chest wall (pleural space).

epistaxis

Hemorrhage of the nares or nostrils (nose bleed)

external respiration

Exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the lungs

fine crackle (rales)

Dry, high-pitched crackling and popping lung sounds of short duration

hemopneumothorax

Presence of blood and air within the pleural space.

hemothorax

Condition wherein blood accumulations in the pleural space of the lungs

internal respiration

Exchange of Oxygen and carbon dioxide at the cellular level

liquefaction necrosis

Death and subsequent change of tissue to a liquid or semi-liquid state; often descriptive of a primary tubercle

lung stretch receptor

Receptor that monitors the patterns of breathing and prevents overexpansion of the lungs

perfusion

Blood flow through an organ or body part

pleural effusion

Collection of fluid within the pleural cavity

pleural friction rub

Abnormal breath sound that is creaky and grating in nature and is heard on inspiration and expiration

pleurisy

Condition arising from inflammation of the pleura or sac that encases the lung

pneumonia

Inflammation of the bronchioles and alveoli accompanied by consolidation, or solidification of exudate in drainage

pneumothorax

Condition whereain air or gas accumulates in the pleural space of the lungs causing the lungs to collapse

primary tubercle

Nodule that contains tubercle bacilli and forms within lung tissue

respiration

Process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide

sibilant wheeze

Abnormal breath sound that is high pitched and musical in nature and is heard in inhalation and exhalation

sonorous wheeze (rhonchi)

Abnormal breath sound that is low pitched and snoring in nature and is louder on expiration

status asthmaticus

Persistent, intractable asthma attack

stridor

High pitched, harsh sound heard on inspiration when the trachea or larynx is obstructed

surfactant

Phospholipids that are present in the lunges and lower surface tension to prevent collapse of the airways

ventilation

Movement of gases into and out of the lungs

vesicular sound

Heard over the majority of the lung. Soft, breezy low-pitched sound heard longer on inspirtation than expiration resulting from air moving through the smaller airways over the lung periphery, with the exception of the scapular area

Eupnea

Normal Breathing

Apnea

Cessation of breathing, possibly temporary in nature

Dyspnea

Labored or difficult breathing, possibly normal if associated with exercise

Bradypnea

Abnormally slow breathing

Tachypnea

Abnormally rapid breathing

Orthopnea

Discomfort or difficulty with breathing in any but an upright sitting or standing position

Kussmaul's Respirations

Abnormal respiratory pattern characterized by irregular periods of increased rate and depth of respiration; most often seen with diabetic ketoacidosis

Blot's respirations

Abnormal respiratory pattern characterized by irregular periods of apnea alternating with short periods of respiration of equal depth; most commonly seen with increased intracranial pressure.

Cheyne-Stokes respirations

Abnormal respiratory pattern characterized by initially slow, shallow respirations that increase in rapidity and depth and then gradually decrease until respiration stops for 10 to 60 seconds; pattern then repeats itself in the same manner.

Anoxia

Without Oxygen

Hypoxia

Lack of adequate oxygen in inspired air such as occurs at high altitude

Hypoxemia

Insufficient amount of oxygen in the blood possibly due to respiratory, cardiovascular or anemia related disorders

Cyanosis

Bluish, grayish or purplish discoloration of the skin caused by abnormal amounts of reduced (oxygen-poor) hemoglobin in the blood; not always a reliable indicator of hypoxia

Acrocyanosis

Cyanosis of the fingertips and toes; often caused by vasomotor disturbances associated with vasoconstriction

Circumoral cyanosis

Bluish discoloration encircling the mouth

Oxygen saturation

Amount of oxygen combined with hemoglobin

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