compounds co, compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms arranged as monosaccharides. usually in a ratio of 1:2:1. Carbo - carbon, hydrate - with water
Complex carbs (starches and fibers)
polysaccharides composed of straight or branches chains of monosaccharides
single sugars, single sugar molecules. Carbs of the general formula CnH2nOn that typically form a single ring. mono - one, saccharide - sugar. Glucose, fructose, and galactose
large molecules composed of chains of monosaccharides. poly - many. Glycogen, starches, and fibers.
a monosaccharide. sometimes known as levulose. Found abundantly in fruits, honey and sap. fruct - fruit
to break a disaccharide into two. A molecule of water splits to provide the H and OH needed to complete the monosaccharide.
polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of glucose. manufactured and stored in the liver and muscles as a storage form of glucose. Not a significant food source of carbs and is not a complex carb. glyco- glucose, gen- gives rise to
in plant foods, the nonstarch polysaccharides that are not digested by human digestive enzymes, although some are digested by GI tract bacteria. Dietary fibers include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, and mucilages as well as the nonpolysaccharides lignins, cutins, and tannins.
indegestible food components that dissolve in water to form a gel. an is example is pectin from fruti, which is used to thicken jellies. slows peristalsis.
the extent to which bacteria in the gi tract can break down fibers to fragments that the body can use
indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water. example include the togh fibrous structures found in the strings of celery and skins of corn kernels. Promotes bowel movements and alleviate constipation.
starches that escape digestion and absorption in the small intestine of healthy people.
a non nutrient component of plant seeds; also call phylate. it occurs in the husks of grain, legumes, and seeds and is capable of binding minerals such as zinc, iron, calcium, magnesim, and coppin in insoluble complexes in the intestine which the body excretes unused
The short chains of glucose units that result from the breakdown of starch are known as ____________.
an enzyme that hydrolyzes amylose ( a form of starch). Amylase is a carbohydrase ( enzyme that breaks down carbs)
the inability to completely digest the milk sugar lactose. Caused by an immune reaction to the protein in milk.
a lack of the enzyme required to digest the disaccharide lactose into its component monosaccharides (glucose and galactose)
fermetned milke created by lacobacillus acidphilus and other bacteria that break down lactose into glucose and galactose producing a sweet lactose free product
formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources. gluco - glucose, neo- new, genesis - making.
the action of carbohydrate (and fat) in providing energy that allows protein to be used for other purposes.
the product of the incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is not available in the cells
hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas in response to increased blood glucose. Primary role is to control the transport of glucose from the blood into muscle and fat cells.
A hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans that serves to regulate blood sugar by releasing glucose out of storage
adrenaline; activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster, stopping digestion, enlarging pupils, sending sugar into the bloodstream, preparing a blood clot faster
a chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, usually resulting from insufficient or ineffective insulin
an abnormally low blood glucose concentration marked by weakness, rapid heartbeat, sweating, anxiety, hunger, and trembling.
The extent to which food raises the the blood glucose concentration and elicits an insulin response.