Understanding Nutrition Chapter 4

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The carbohydrates: sugars, starches, and fibers.

Carbohydrates

compounds co, compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms arranged as monosaccharides. usually in a ratio of 1:2:1. Carbo - carbon, hydrate - with water

Simple Carbs

monosaccharides and disacchardes.

Complex carbs (starches and fibers)

polysaccharides composed of straight or branches chains of monosaccharides

Monosaccharides

single sugars, single sugar molecules. Carbs of the general formula CnH2nOn that typically form a single ring. mono - one, saccharide - sugar. Glucose, fructose, and galactose

Disaccharides

Sugars composed of monosaccharides. Maltose, sucrose, and lactose.

Polysaccharides

large molecules composed of chains of monosaccharides. poly - many. Glycogen, starches, and fibers.

Carbon

4 bonds

Nitrogen

3 bonds

Oxygen

2 bonds

Hydrogen

1 bond

Maltose

glucose + glucose

Sucrose

Glucose + fructose

Lactose

Glucose + galactose

Fructose

a monosaccharide. sometimes known as levulose. Found abundantly in fruits, honey and sap. fruct - fruit

Galactose

a monosaccharide. part of the disaccharide lactose

Glucose

a monosaccharide. sometimes known as blood sugar as dextrose. ose- carb

Disaccharides

pairs of monosaccharides linked together. di- two

Condensation

a chemical reaction in which 2 reactants combine to yield a larger product

Maltose

disaccharide composed of 2 glucose units. Sometimes known as malt sugar.

Sucrose

a disaccharide made from glucose and fructose; table sugar. Sucro - sugar

Hydrolysis

to break a disaccharide into two. A molecule of water splits to provide the H and OH needed to complete the monosaccharide.

Lactose

a disaccharide compose of glucose and galactose. Commonly known as milk sugar. lact - milk

Glycogen

polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of glucose. manufactured and stored in the liver and muscles as a storage form of glucose. Not a significant food source of carbs and is not a complex carb. glyco- glucose, gen- gives rise to

Starches

plant polysaccharides composed of glucose

Dietary fibers

in plant foods, the nonstarch polysaccharides that are not digested by human digestive enzymes, although some are digested by GI tract bacteria. Dietary fibers include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, gums, and mucilages as well as the nonpolysaccharides lignins, cutins, and tannins.

Soluble fibers

indegestible food components that dissolve in water to form a gel. an is example is pectin from fruti, which is used to thicken jellies. slows peristalsis.

Fermentable

the extent to which bacteria in the gi tract can break down fibers to fragments that the body can use

Insoluble fibers

indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water. example include the togh fibrous structures found in the strings of celery and skins of corn kernels. Promotes bowel movements and alleviate constipation.

Resistant starches

starches that escape digestion and absorption in the small intestine of healthy people.

Phytic acid

a non nutrient component of plant seeds; also call phylate. it occurs in the husks of grain, legumes, and seeds and is capable of binding minerals such as zinc, iron, calcium, magnesim, and coppin in insoluble complexes in the intestine which the body excretes unused

Dextrins

The short chains of glucose units that result from the breakdown of starch are known as ____________.

Amylase

an enzyme that hydrolyzes amylose ( a form of starch). Amylase is a carbohydrase ( enzyme that breaks down carbs)

Satiety

feeling of satisfaction after each meal; when it diminishes, you eat again

Maltase

enzyme that breaks down maltose

Sucrase

an enzyme that breaks down sucrose

Lactase

An enzyme that breaks down lactose

Lactose intolerance

the inability to completely digest the milk sugar lactose. Caused by an immune reaction to the protein in milk.

Lactase deficiency

a lack of the enzyme required to digest the disaccharide lactose into its component monosaccharides (glucose and galactose)

Kefir

fermetned milke created by lacobacillus acidphilus and other bacteria that break down lactose into glucose and galactose producing a sweet lactose free product

Gluconeogenesis

formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources. gluco - glucose, neo- new, genesis - making.

Protein-sparing action

the action of carbohydrate (and fat) in providing energy that allows protein to be used for other purposes.

Glucose

Preferred source for brain, nerve cells, and to develop red cells.

Ketone bodies

the product of the incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is not available in the cells

Ketosis

an undesirably high concentration of ketone bodies in the blood and urine

Acid base balance

equilibrium between acid and base concentrations in the body fluids

Insulin

hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas in response to increased blood glucose. Primary role is to control the transport of glucose from the blood into muscle and fat cells.

Glucagon

A hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans that serves to regulate blood sugar by releasing glucose out of storage

Epinephrine

adrenaline; activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster, stopping digestion, enlarging pupils, sending sugar into the bloodstream, preparing a blood clot faster

Diabetes

a chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, usually resulting from insufficient or ineffective insulin

Type I diabetes

the pancreas fails to produce insulin

Type II diabetes

cells fail to respond to the insulin usually in response to obesity

Hypoglycemia

an abnormally low blood glucose concentration marked by weakness, rapid heartbeat, sweating, anxiety, hunger, and trembling.

Glycemic response

The extent to which food raises the the blood glucose concentration and elicits an insulin response.

Glycemic index

a method of classifying foods according to their potential for raising blood glucose

Added sugars

sugars and syrups that are added to food during processing or preparations

Serotonin

neurotransmitter that affects sleep, arousal, mood, appetite; lack of it is linked with depression

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