← Chapter 6 Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Protein A high-molecular-weight, nitrogen-containing organic compound of complex shape and composition. Polypeptides Macromolecular subunits of protein. Amino acids Building blocks of Polypeptides. Peptide bond A covalent bond formed between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of an adjacent amino acid. Genetic code A triplet code-a set of three nucleotides (a codon) in mRNA code form one amino acid in a polypeptide chain. Frameshift mutation results from the addition or deletion of a base pair. 'Words' after deletion or addition are in a different frame and a different set of amino acids will be specified. Reversion The process of changing a mutant back to the wild-type state. Degeneracy More than one codon occurs for each amino acid (except for 2). Stop codons Three codons that are used to specify the end of translation of a polypeptide chain. Wobble hypothesis A single tRNA can recognize up to three different codons. 5' end is able to wobble. Anticodon Three-nucleotide sequence in tRNA loop II which pairs with a three-nucleotide codon sequence in mRNA by base pairing during translation. Pre-tRNA Produced by transcription of tRNA genes in both bacteria and eukaryotes. Has an extra sequence at each end that are removed posttranscriptionally. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase Enzyme that attaches the correct amino acid to the tRNA. Charging Process of aminoacylation. Produces are charged tRNA. Ribosomes Location for polypeptide synthesis. Consists of two unequally sized subunits, each of which consists of a complex between RNA molecules and proteins. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) The regions of DNA that contain the genes for rRNA. Precursor rRNA (pre-RNA) Product of transcription by RNA polymerase. Includes spacer sequences. Ribosome-binding site (RBS) a sequence upstream of the AUG that indicates where the 30S subunit of the ribosome should bind to the mRNA. Peptidyl transferase Enzyme that catalyzes the peptide bond formed between the two amino acids. Polyribosome The complex between an mRNA molecule and all the ribosomes that are translating it. Release factors Proteins that help the ribosome recognize a stop codon. Ribosome recycling factor (RRF) Helps with the deconstruction of the remaining complex of ribosomal subunits, mRNA, and uncharged tRNA so that the ribosome and tRNA may be recycled.