Histology - Cartilage and Bone

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Chondrocyte

This cell lives in lacunae of cartilage.

Type II cartilage

Type of collagen found in cartilage

Keratin sulfate and chondroitin sulfate

The types of GAGs found in cartilage

Chondronectin

This cartilage protein mediates binding to collagen

Water

This substance gives cartilage its shock absorbing properties.

Territorial matrix

The area immediately surrounding the lacunae of a chondrocyte. Has a higher concentration of GAGs

False

True/False?
Small capillaries deliver nutrients to the chondrocyte from the circulatory system.

Interterritorial matrix

Area between chondrocytes with relatively lower concentration of GAGs

Perichondrium

The dense CT covering the surface of cartilage,
EXCEPT articular cartilage.

Fibroblasts and progenitor cells

What cell types make up the fibrous layer of perichondrium?

Type I and II collagen

What CT fibers make up fibrous perichondrium matrix?

True

T/F?
There are many blood vessels in the fibrous layer of perichondrium.

Chondroblasts and progenitor cells

What cell types make up the chondrogenic layer of perichondrium?

Type II collagen

What CT fibers make up the chondrogenic layer of perichondrium?

Perichondrium

The purpose of this structure is to:
-provide nutrition to associated tissue
-provide area of attachment to tendon and ligament
-Grows and repairs cartilage

Appositional growth

Growth in width of cartilage by adding additional layers of cells and matrix.

Chondroblast

This cell actively secretes cartilaginous matrix and becomes entrapped.

Chondrocyte

This cell is a former chondroblast entrapped in matrix.

Interstitial growth

Growth of cartilage from within. Chondrocytes undergo mitosis and daughter cells secrete more matrix.

Isogenous groups

A nest of chondrocytes derived from one progenitor cell.

Hyaline cartilage

Most common type of cartilage

Hyaline cartilage

This cartilage is found in:
-articular cartilage
-larynx, trachea, bronchi
-cartilage precursor for bone

Type II collagen

Type of collagen found in hyaline cartilage

Keratin sulfate and chondroitin sulfate

GAGs found in hyaline cartilage

Chondronectin

This protein binds chondrocytes to cartilage

Keratin sulfate

This GAG increase the firmness of cartilage by binding water

Elastic cartilage

This cartilage resembles hyaline cartilage but contains a purple filament when stained with Verhoeff's

Elastic cartilage

This cartilage is found in:
-auricle of ear
-epiglottis
-eustacian tube
-auditory tube

Fibrillin and elastin

Elastic fibers are formed from...

Fibrocartilage

This cartilage is found in:
-intervertebral disks
-pubic symphisis
-TMJ

Fibrocartilage

This cartilage looks like dense irregular CT except for presence of chondrocytes.

Type I and II collagen

Fibrocartilage contains what collagen fibers?

Bone

This tissue contains a calcified matrix mixed with secreted osteoid.

Diaphysis

The shaft of a long bone.

Metaphysis

Growth zone of a bone during development.

Epiphysis

ends of a long bone

Compact bone

Very dense bone that lines the edges and thickens in the middle.

Cancellous bone

This bone contains trebeculae (plates of osseous tissue + spicules)

Newly-formed bone

This type of bone is more cellular and has a random arrangement of fine collagen fibers

Mature bone

This type of bone has an organized lamellar arrangement of collagen fibers.

Bone sutures and sockets of teeth

These two features are not replaced with mature bone during development

Periosteum

Dense CT and osteoblast covering on the outer surface of bone. Has a fibrous and osteogenic layer.

Sharpey's fibers

Bundles of collagen that attach periostium to bone

Periosteum

The function of this structure is to:
-mediate appositional growth of bone
-bone repair
-attachment site for ligament and tendons
-sensation

Endosteum

The single layer of osteoblasts and osteoprogenitors covering the internal surface of bone

Osteoprogenitor

Flattened endosteum cell that is precursor to osteoblast

Osteoblast

A cuboidal cell that is part of the endosteum

Osteocyte

What lives in the lacunae of bone?

Canaliculi

Small channels that allow communication between lacunae as well as Haversian canals in bone

Hydroxyapatite

This crystal of calcium and phosphate forms the inorganic matrix of bone

Type I collagen and GAGs

What is present in the osteoid of bone?

True

T/F?
Bones are highly vascularized.

False

T/F?
Vascular systems in bone are established after matrix deposition.

Haversian system

This includes the concentric layers of bone and the containing canal

Haversian canal

Space that runs parallel to long bone and contains vasculature, loose CT, and nerves.

Concentric lamellae

The spiral organization of collagen

Volkmann's canal

This allows a Haversian canal to communicate with:
-adjacent systems
-periosteum
-bone marrow cavity

True

T/F?
Volkmann's canals are not surrounded by lemellae, they actually pass through.

Outer circumferential lamellae

The outer most ring of lamellae.

Interstitial lamellae

Incomplete lamellae located between systems.

Cement line

the outer line that separates Haversian systems.

Cancellous bone

This type of bone is located in:
-central region of diaphysis
-diploe of flat bones
-spongiosa of alveolar process

Osteoblast

This cell type secretes alkaline phosphase in bone

Osteoclast

This cell type secretes acid phosphatase in bone

Howship's lacunae

The cavity created by osteoclasts in bone

Monocytes

Osteoclasts are derived from...

Silver stain

This stain is used to ID reticular fibers

Synovial joint

This type of joint allows for movement between the ends of two bones

Mesoderm

What is the germ origin of the cells that secrete lubricating synovial fluid

Non-synovial joint

A joint that is not freely moving. Connected by dense CT.

Osteoblast

What cell type place a major role in paracrine signaling of osteoclasts.

Cortisol

A glucocorticoid hormone that leads to osteoperosis (inhibited osteoblast activity)

Growth hormone

Secreted by pituitary gland and stimulates osteoblasts

PTH

This hormone stimulates both osteoblast and osteoclast. Released in response to low serum Ca levels.

T3/T4

Released by thyroid and stimulates osteoblasts in response to increasing serum Ca levels

Estradiol

Stimulates osteoblasts and clasts and its absence leads to osteoperosis

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