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The blood volume in an adult averages approximately

5 L

The hormonal stimulus that prompts red blood cell formation is

erythropoietin

All the following are true of RBCs except

contain nuclei

The most numerous WBC is the

neutrophil

Blood proteins play an important part in

blood clotting, immunity, & maintenance of blood volume

The white blood cell that releases histamine and other inflammatory chemicals is the

basophil

The blood cell that can become an antibody-secreting cell is the

lymphocyte

What does NOT promote multiple steps in the clotting pathway?

factor XI

The normal pH of the blood is about

7.4

Suppose your blood was found to be AB positive. This means that

agglutinogens A and B are present on your red blood cells, there are no anti-A or anti-B antibodies in your plasma, and your blood is Rh+

A healthy adult male has approximately how many liters of blood.

5-6
The average volume of circulating blood is approximately 5-6 liters in males and approximately 4-5 liters in females.

A major plasma protein that maintains the blood osmotic pressure is:

albumin.
Albumin constitutes 60% of plasma protein and primarily functions in maintaining water balance between blood and body tissues.

Diapedesis refers to:

the escape of leukocytes from blood vessels into tissue spaces.
To protect the body from foreign invasion, WBCs need to leave circulation and move out of capillary vessels into tissue space, a process called diapedesis.

Granulocytes do NOT include:

monocytes.
Monocytes lack granules in their cytoplasm and are agranulocytes.

Mature red blood cells in the circulating blood are filled with:

hemoglobin molecules.

Pernicious anemia may result from:

the lack of vitamin B12 in diet or deficiency of intrinsic factor needed to absorb B12.

The final step in clot formation is:

fibrinogen → fibrin.
The conversion of soluble plasma fibrinogen into an insoluble fibrin completes the clotting process.

The most numerous leukocyte is the:

neutrophil.
Neutrophils make up 50-70 % of the leukocyte population.

The terms biconcave and anucleated apply to:

red blood cells.

Which leukocyte contains histamine in its granules?

Basophils
The granules in basophils contain histamine.

Which of the following is a protective function of blood?

Preventing infection
Blood contains antibodies, complement proteins, and white blood cells that protect the body against foreign invaders.

Which of the following statements about platelets is INCORRECT?

The life span of platelets is between 30 to 60 days.

The life span of platelets is between 5 and 10 days.

Which property do white blood cells have in common?

WBCs are nucleated and have a protective function.

Individuals with malaria have a better chance of surviving if they have which type of anemia?

Sickle-cell anemia
RBCs infected with malaria stick to walls of blood vessels and lose potassium, causing the parasite to die.

Which of the following types of white blood cells kills parasitic worms, destroys antibody complexes, and inactivates some inflammatory chemicals of allergy?

Eosinophils

Which of the following is a function of neutrophils?

Phagocytize bacteria

Which of the following is a function of erythrocytes?

Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide

Which of the following is a function of basophils?

Release histamine during allergic reaction

Which of the following is a function of lymphocytes?

Destruction of virus-containing cells

The percentage of total volume used to determine the number of erythrocytes in a blood sample is referred to as the:

hematocrit.
The reticulocyte count provides a rough index of the rate of RBC formation, but not the percentage of RBCs in a blood sample. The percentage of RBCs in a given volume of blood is referred to as the hematocrit.

The buffy coat that appears after a sample of blood has been centrifuged contains:

WBCs
Serum is plasma minus the plasma proteins The buffy coat that appears between the plasma and the RBCs in a centrifuged blood sample is composed of WBCs and platelets.

Which of the following factors has the greatest effect on making RBCs very efficient oxygen transporters?

They generate ATP by anaerobic mechanisms and do not consume any of the oxygen they carry.

Another term for reduced hemoglobin is:

deoxyhemoglobin.

What is an illustration of iron deficiency seen in individuals who have expanded their blood by increased activity.

Athlete's anemia

The process of actively metabolizing oxygen to produce bleach and hydrogen to kill bacteria is known as:

respiratory burst.

Which of the following substances is responsible for limiting a platelet plug to the immediate area of damage?

Prostacyclin

Erythroblastosis fetalis is caused by:

Rh incompatibility between an Rh-negative mother and her Rh-positive baby during pregnancy.

Which of the following plasma expanders would be associated with the least complications?

Ringer's solution

Ringer's solution is associated with the least complications when used as a plasma expander.

Eighty-five percent of Americans carry the what Rh agglutinogen on their RBCs.

D
Eighty-five percent of Americans carry the D Rh agglutinogen on their RBCs.

Which antibodies would be found in the serum of a person with AB blood?

Neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies

Each hemoglobin molecule has four polypeptide chains: two alpha chains and two beta chains.

True
A hemoglobin molecule is composed of the protein globin bound to the iron-containing heme pigments. Each globin molecule has four polypeptide chains.

Eosinophils are erythrocytes that fight parasitic infection or allergic reaction.

False
Eosinophils are leukocytes that defend the body against parasite infections and lessen the severity of allergic reactions.

Hemoglobin serves to transport oxygen, but NOT carbon dioxide.

False
About 20% of carbon dioxide is transported bound to hemoglobin.

Plasma contains water, proteins, nutrient molecules, and hormones.

True

Reticulocytes are sometimes found in circulating blood and are filled with hemoglobin and some ribosomes.

True
Reticulocytes are precursors of RBC.

The buffy coat in centrifuged blood contains RBC and platelets.

False
The buffy coat contains leukocytes and platelets.

The RBC count in both men and women is between 5.1 and 5.8 million per microliter of blood.

False
Women have a slightly lower RBC count than men.

Vitamin D is essential for the synthesis of RBC.

False
B-complex vitamins are essential for the production of RBC.

When oxygen is bound to hemoglobin it becomes oxyhemoglobin.

True

One of the regulatory functions of blood is to maintain normal temperatures in body tissues.

True
The blood does this by absorbing and distributing heat throughout the body and to the skin to encourage heat loss.

The most abundant component of plasma is protein.

False
The most abundant component of plasma is water.

Formed elements of blood include erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets.

True
These are called formed elements rather than "cells" because RBCs lack a nucleus at maturity, and platelets are fragments of a larger cell.

Hemoglobin is the protein that makes red blood cells red.

True
Hemoglobin is bright red when combined with oxygen and dark red when NOT combined with oxygen.

Blood cell formation is referred to as hemostasis.

False
Blood cell formation is referred to as hemopoiesis (or hematopoiesis).

Dissolved proteins are an important part of blood clotting.

True
Dissolved proteins are involved in coagulation, which is part of the clotting process.

Blood is NOT important in the regulation of the body's pH.

False
Plasma proteins and bicarbonate ions are very important in maintaining pH.

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