of Russia in 1240 kept it occupied and under domination for about 250 years. Finally in 1480 Ivan III, a grand duke of Muscovy, able to repel the Mongols. During the time of Mongol domination Russia was very isolated and lost pace with the West. Influenced by Greek Orthodox Ch. so Constantinople was cultural/relig ctr, not Rome. Renaissance passed Russia by.
Ivan the Terrible
1533-1584 First Grand Duke of Muscovy to assume the title of Tsar. Noted dissolution of Polish state and determined not to let same happen in Russia. Strongly suppressed opposition groups - the nobility.
Time of Troubles
1604-1613, During which the Russian nobles elected series of tsars a tried to demand their liberties. Contending factions and civil war. Finally in 1613 national assembly elected a 17 year old boy as tsar - start of Romanov dynasty.
1613 - First of Romanovs which would be ruling dynasty until 1917. Early Romanovs seeing chaos in Poland were quick to repress representative institutions in Russia and put down boyars(Russian nobility) - CLEARLY ESTABLISHED ABSOLUTISM.
Peter the Great
1689-1725 tsar at age 10. Fascination with West & shipbuilding. Streltsi rebelled while he was doing the "tour" of Western Europe. Put down rebellion brutally. Demanded that boyars cut their beards and dress more like westerners. Established Table of Ranks. Encouraged Econ devt. & academies. The Govt. administration improved. Established control of Church thru Synod. Fourght Wars for Warm Water Ports. Alexis, his son, died - possibly by hands of / because of Peter with whom he often fought. Prob. of succession. Weak rulers followed until C the G.
Procurator of the Holy Synod
One of Peter the Great's relig. reforms was to establish the Holy Synod of Church to supplant Patriarchate in power. Included lay people and Procurator was an administrator responsible to tsar. - SECULARIZATION OF THE CHURCH.
"Windows on the West"
Peter's desire for warm water ports to the West for trade, defense and opening up of Russia to Westernization/modernization. Goes to war with Swedes and Turks to try to achieve this. St. Petersburg becomes his window on the west.
Battle of Narva
1700, Charles XII of Sweden with 8,000 men routed Peter's army of 40,000 men. Peter resolved to improve army further and later came back at Battle of Poltava.
Battle of Poltava
1709, Peter drew Chas XII into Russian southern plains and defeated him here destroying the entire Swedish army. Went on to conquer other Baltic states and even came close to Stockholm itself. Baltic no longer a Swedish lake and Peter had warm water port. These developments ended the Great Northern War(1709-21) concluded in Peace of Nystadt in 1721.
Built on Gulf of Finland, warm water port/window on the West. Built on W. Euro style. Winter palace. Attracted in many European figures.
had been elite of old army. Went into rebellion while Peter away in 1698 in Europe. Peter put down rebellion harshly - used torture and execution - went on for months and strung up rebels till they rotted. Lesson to other would-be rebels. Liquidated streltsi and built up new army - importing experts from W. to advise him.
In 1667 he led uprising of fugitive serfs, Cossacks and adventurers. Outfitted fleet on Caspian Sea, plundered Russian vessels, defeated a Persian squadron and invaded Persia itself. Then went up Volga, killing and burning and proclaiming war against landlords, nobles and priests. Many cities welcomed and joined him. Finally caught in 1671 and put to death. Significance - serfdom was clamped down hard on the country by nobility for over a century.
Objected to reforms being introduced into Russian Orthodox Church in 1650s. More agitated, ignorant and fanatical than established church - formed numerous sects. Many acted in Razin uprising. Popular with peasants who distrusted organized Orthodox Church. See the Ortho Church as just another engine of repression by nobility and Czar.
Peter the Great reorganized old organs of local self-govt. Old system of duma and national assembly replaced with a senate, dependent on himself and ten territorial areas called "governments" or gubernii. Use of Latin word shows imitation of West.
Part of Peter's westernizing program. All landowning and serf-owning aristocrats required to work in either army or civil service. In this, birth played no role. Meritocracy only.
Resisted his father's (Peter's) reforms. Vowed he would put a stop to them & restore old customs. Peter had him put to death and kept on with his westernizing. Declared that thereafter tsar could choose his own successor.
One of few Polish kings of Poland who had contributed greatly to relief of Vienna under siege by the Turks in 1683.
War of Polish Succession
1733, Dispute over who should be king. Two Polish kings were in fact German at this time. Louis XV of France trying to put father in law(Stanislas I - a native Pol) in power. But he was twice dethroned. Instead he was given Dukedom of Lorraine.
Catherine II of Russia
(r. 1762-1796) secured the election of her lover, Stanislas Poniatowski, to throne of Poland. Thus extended her influence. Claimed she was protector of Polish Liberties. (BUT PRUSSIANS INTERESTED IN PARTITION OF POLAND - WANTED A SHARE OF INFLUENCE/TERRITORY - SEE NOTES ON PARTITION OF POLAND.)
Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji
War between Turks and Russians in 1772 ended in this treaty. Catherine the Great secured by this a Black Sea (warm water) port for Russia. (Peter the Great had been unable to secure for effective use the port of Azov.) Russia's success in this was an additional prompt to Frederick the Great of Prussia to practice diplomacy in partitioning Poland. Russia's expansive tendancies were alarming and it seemed preferable to arrange a deal rather than not be part carving into Poland.
The part of Poland that went to Austria in the partitioning in 1772.