Descartes view of the world as consisting of two fundamental entities matter and mind.
the idea that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe; this had enormous scientific and religious implications.
theory of inductive reasoning where you should go beyond speculation and begin to compare and analyze the subject.
the adaptation, albeit varied of enlightened governing into the rule of absolute monarchs often at the insistence of philosophes.
a world-view has played a large role in shaping the modern mind. The three central concepts of the Enlightenment were the use of reason, the scientific method, and progress.
Galileo's greatest achievement; rather than speculate about what might or should happen in an experiment, he conducted controlled experiments to find out what actually did happen.
is sacred and absolute, reflecting the common interests of all the people who have displeased the monarch as the holder of sovereign power, it is not necessarily the will of the majority.
Law of inertia
a law formulated by Galileo that stated that rest was not the natural state of object. Rather, an object continues in motion forever unless stopped by some external force.
Law of universal gravitation
every body in the universe attracts every body in the universe in a precise mathematical relationship, whereby the force of attraction is proportional to the quantity of matter of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
practice of the "Scientific Revolution," intending to ask fundamental questions about the nature of the universe, its purpose, and how it functioned.
intellectuals in France who proclaimed that they were bringing the light of knowledge to their ignorant fellow creatures in the Age of Enlightenment.
the idea that with the proper method of discovering the laws of human existence, it was possible for humans to create better societies and better people.
composed of institutions such as book clubs, Masonic lodges, and journals, and celebrated open debate informed by critical reason.
result of the devotion of Enlightenment thinkers to comparisons of European and non-European cultures, deriving their understanding of people at home from their differences with people abroad.
nothing was to be accepted on faith; everything was to be submitted to the rational, critical, scientific way of thinking.
result of reading more books on many more subjects, allowing the educated public in France and throughout Europe the approach reading in a new way.
popular style through Europe in the eighteenth century, known for its soft pastels, ornate interiors, sentimental portraits, and starry-eyed lovers protected by hovering cupids.
elegant private drawing rooms where talented and rich Parisian women held regular social gatherings to discuss literature, science and philosophy.
expanding social group with the rise of modern science, whose members were linked together by common interests and shared values as well as by journals and the learned scientific societies founded in many countries in the later seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Separation of powers
the idea that despotism could be avoided when political power was divided and shared by a variety of classes and legal estates holding unequal rights and privileges.
belief that nothing can ever be known beyond all doubt and that humanity's best hope was open-minded toleration.
a blank tablet, incorporated into Locke's belief that all ideas are derived from experience, and that the human mind at birth is like a blank tablet on which the environment writes the individuals understanding and beliefs.