cation; determines osmotic pressure & electrolyte balance; highest concentration in extracellular fluid
cation; major intracellular
necessary for muscle contractility, cardiac fxn, neural transmission, & blood clotting.
combined with calcium w/in skeleton & teeth; the rest is in the blood, cell membranes, ATP, nucleic acids, or enzymes.
most important anion of extracellular fluid; counter-balances Sodium.
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
An indirect and rough measurment of renal fxn & Glomelular Filtration Rate (GFR); also measures Liver fxn.
diagnoses impaired Renal fxn.
C-Reactive Protein (CRP)
a non-specific, acute phase reactant protein; diagnoses bacterial infections & inflammatory d.o.
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
a non-specific test to detect acute or chronic infection, inflammation, & tissue necrosis or infarction.
Measures the rate at which RBCs settle in plasma or saline solution over a period of time.
Fibrinogen (Factor 1)
essential for blood clotting; an acute phase reactant protein that rises sharply during tissue inflammation or necrosis.
many parts of body tissue but most significant maintains proper osmotic pressure within vascular space.
Measurments in serum are for total protein, albumin, and globulins.
Serum Glucose Levels
help diagnosing many metabolic diseases.
A test for liver fxn; can be done via blood & urine analysis.
Prothrombin Time (PT)
evaluates adequacy of coagulation system (specifically Factor 1 (fibrinogen), Factor 2 (prothrombin), factor 5, 7, and 10.
Partial Tromboplastin Time (PTT)
evaluates adequacy of coagulation system (specifically Facter 1,2,5,7,9-12)
evaluates vascular and platelet factors associated with homeostasis.
(a test of Liver fxn bc Liver produces coagulation/clotting factors)
Red Blood Cell Count
number of circulating RBCs in a cubic mm of peripheral blood.
measures total Hgb in blood and an indirect measurment of RBC count.
(stress on cardiovascular system)
percentage of blood volume made up of RBCs and indirect measurment of RBCs
Red Blood Cell Indicies
tell about size, weight, & hemoglobin concentration of RBCs.
almost always related to anemia.
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV)
a measure of average volume, or size, of a single RBC. (macrocytic or microcytic)
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH)
measure of the average amount (weight) of hemoglobin within an RBC
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)
measure of average concentration of Hb in a given volume of RBCs.
(hyperchromic, normochromic, hypocromic))
Red Blood Cell Distribution Width (RDW)
an indication of the variation of RBC size. The variations may be helpful when classifying certain types of anemia.
1. total number of leukocytes in peripheral venous bloodl
2. Differencial count measures % of each type
an actual number of thrombocytes pper cubic mm of blood.
provides significant info concerning drugs and diseases that affect RBC & WBCs.
can diagnose other congenital and acquired diseases.