What are the 5 primary functions of skeletal systems?
Storage of Minerals and Lipids
Blood Cell Production
How many bones are in Axial Skeleton?
How many bones are in Appendicular Skeleton?
List the 6 types of Bones
Sutural, Irregular, Short, Long, Flat ,Sesamoid bones
Example of Sutural bones
Wormian bones, flat, small, found between the flat bones of the skull.
Example of Irregular bones
complex shapes, short, flat : vertebrae, bones in pelvis, several skull bone
Example of Short bones
small and boxy: carpals (wrist), tarsal (ankle)
Example of Long bones
fairly long and slender: Humerus, Ulna, Radius, Femus, Tibia, Fibula
Example of Flat bones
thin, parallel surfaces: ribs, sternum
Example of Sesamoid bones
small, flat, shape like sesame seed: patella (only) - knee cap
List the structures the long bone?
Epiphysis/Epiphyseal line, Metaphysis, Diaphysis, Articular Cartilage, Periosteum, Endosteum, Medullary Cavity
The proximal or distal end of a long bone
Neck area - narrow zone between epiphysis and diaphysis
Hyaline Cartilage at the end of bones
Outer layer (fibrous tissue)
Bone cells and fibrous tissue (lines the bone marrow)
forms a sturdy protective layer that rounds a central space (bone marrow)
What is the structure of a flat bone?
two layers of compact bone w/ spongy bone in the middle
Bone is composed of?
Protein Fibers + Minerals = Matrix & Cell Population
Type of Protein Fibers in bone?
forms a lattice-like structure within bone (minerals will be deposited around that structure)
What are the two main mineral components?
Calcium Phosphate and Calcium Hydroxide
Deposit calcium salts into a tissue
Bone Stem Cells - Mesenchymal Cells,
Undergo Cell Division
Bone building cells, produce/secrete matrix components, osteogenesis, osteoid.
Creation of bone tissue
Immature bone that is unmeniralized
Mature bone cells, Matrix contains bone cells.
Secret lysosomal enzymes and acids, large multinucleate cells, osteolysis, resorption.
Move calcium mineral form BONE to BLOOD
Bone Cell Origin
Mesenchymal --> Osteoprogenirator --> Osteoblasts <-- --> Osteocytes
Compact Bone made up of what?
Lacunae, Canaliculi, Volkmann's Canal, Lamallae
Types of Lamallae
Concentric Lamallea, Interstitial Lamallae, Circumferential Lamallae
Runs around haversian canal, makes up osteons
Fill in between Osteons
Just inside Periosteum, Allong inner portion of compact bone.
Hole where you find osteocyte
Contain extensions of osteocytes membrane and cytoplams (allow for communication and transport)
Contain blood vessels, run Perpendicullar to longitude axis of bone.
Organic Matrix (before calcium salt is added)
Spongy bone forms a meshwork of supporting bundles of fibers.
Red Bone Marrow
Found in between the trabeculae of spongy bone, ex: femur, sternum, ilium
Yellow Bone Marrow
Found in Adipose Tissue
Reduces weight of bone, makes it easier for muscle to move
Where does Intramembranous (Dermal) Ossification occurs?
Deep layer of the Dermis
List the four Intramembranous Ossification.
Ossification Center Develops, Calcification, Formation of Trabeculae, Development of Periosteum.
Six steps of Endochondral Ossification.
Step 1: Enlarging chonddrocytes within calcifying matrix ( Hyaline Cartilage
Step 2: Bone Formation (thin layers of bone form on outside of diaphysis), Chondroblasts dies
Step 3: Primary Ossification Center forms (formation of spongy bone)
Step 4: Diaphysis Remodels
Step 5: Secondary Ossification form in Epiphysis (cartilage --> spongy bone)
Step 6: Articular cartilage form, Epiphyseal Plate - Growth Plate (in Hyaline Cartilage)
What are the four growth in Epiphyseal Plate?
Zone of Resting Cartilage, Zone of Proliferating Cartilage, Zone of Hypertrophic Cartilage, Zone of Calcified Cartilage.
Explain what happens in Zone of Resting Cartilage.
No growth, no cell division, attaches underlying cartilage to epiphysis
Expalin what happens in Zone of Proliferating Cartilage.
Cartilage cells dividing, layer gets thicker.
Explain what happens in Zone of Hypertrophic Cartilage
Cartilage cells enlarge ( does not divided )
Explain what happens in Zone of Calcified Cartilage
Cartilage becomes bone, Increases bone length.
What are the Hormonal and Nutritional Requirements?
Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin B12 and Vitamin K, Calcium, Calcitrol, Thyroid hormone and Growth hormone.
Required for Osteoblast activity.
Needed to make Collagen Fibers
Vitamin B12 and Vitamin K
Needed to make bone protein (collagen)
What does Calcium do for bones?
Vitamin D, needed to properly absorb calcium.
Thyroid hormone and Growth hormone.
Causes Bone Growth
Calcium homeostasis is regulated by 2 hormones.
Calcitonin and Parathyroid Hormone
Released when blood calcium increases
Release when calcium decreases
Three types of Classification of Bone Fractures
External Appearance, Nature of Break, Location
Two types of external appearance.
Simple (close) and Compound (open) Fractures.
Close, broken bone ends, do not break through skin
Open, Break through skin
Types of Nature Break
Transverse, Commuinuted, Greenstick & Spiral Fractures
Breaks shaft perpendicular to longitude axis..
Partial fraction of shaft, broken one side & bent on the other
Bone breaks at an angle - twisting force
What are the steps of Fracture Repair
Hematoma Formation -to- Hyaline Cartilage callus for -to- Spongy bone forms -to- Remodels to compact bone
What are the Location of Break of bones?
Colles Fracture, Pott Fracture, Epiphyseal Fracture
How much Calcium Phosphate contains in bone?
2/3 weight of bone
How much Collagen Fibers contains in bone?
1/3 weight of bone
Hardy crystals consisting of calcium and phosphate that form the bone matrix.