AC Chapter 1 Test

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How Were Sumerian Societies Oorganized?*****

Most people is Sumer were farmers. Some people were artisans. People worked as merchants and traders. People in Sumer where either upper class, middle class and lower class.

Fossils

Archaeologist look for ____. _____ are traces of plants or animals that have been preserved in rock.

Nomad

are people who regularly move from place to place without fixed homes. Examples of nomads are Paleolithic and Mesolithic people.

Technology*****

are tools and methods that help humans perform tasks. Paleolithic people where the first to use technology.

Domesticate

means to tame animals for human use. For example, using animals to provide meat, milk and wool. They also carried goods and people and pulled carts. Mesolithic people began to domesticate animals.

Specialization*****

is the development of different kinds of jobs. The food surplus made is possible for people to practice specialization.

Civilizations

Complex society

Tigris River

A river running through Sumer, Mesopotamia, provided resources for the Mesopotamians

Euphrates River

River is southwestern Asia that flows through Syria and Iraq and joins the Tigris River near the Persian Gulf.
Flows into the Persian Gulf. Was important in the development of several great civilizations in ancient Mesopotamia.
A river in southwestern Asia that flows through the southern part of the Fertile Crescent.

Mesopotamia

First civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture.

Irrigation

Method of bringing water to a field from another place to water crops

Sumer*****

A region of city-states in Mesopotamia that was home to the first civilization. An ancient region of southern Mesopotamia which rose around 3300 B.C.
The first empire that ruled in Mesopotamia and is credited with inventing writing. In present-day Iraq.

City-State

Each Sumerian city and the land around it became a separate city-state. Each city had its own government and was not part of any larger unit.

Artisans

Skilled workers who made metal products, cloth, or pottery.

Cuneiform*****

People in Sumer developed writing to keep track of business deals and other events. Their writing was called ? (shaped like a wedge).

Scribe

a record keeper.

Astronomers

People who study the heavenly bodies, mapped the stars, the planets and the phases of the moon. Chaldeans believed that the changes in the sky revealed
the plans of the gods.

Archaeologist

...

Hanging Gardens

An immense staircase of greenery at the king's palace. It was made of large trees, lots of flowering vines and beautiful plants. Was considered one of the Seventh Wonders of the Ancient World.

Caravans*****

Groups of traveling merchants. Artisans made pottery, cloth, baskets and jewelry to sell the people who were caravans.

King Nebuchadnezzar

was the son Nabopolasser. They built their own empire. By 605 B.C., they conquered nearly all the lands the Assyrians had ruled. They made Babylon the capital of their empire that's why the Chaldean Empire is called the New Babylonian Empire.

Provinces

Assyrian kings divided the empire into provinces. ? are political districts.

Nineveh

Assyria's capital was at Nineveh on the Tigris River. The Assyrian's built one of the world's first libraries in ?.

Persian Gulf*****

Assyrian kings had to be strong to rule their large empire. By about 650 B.C., Assyria stretched from the ? in the east to Egypt's Nile River in the west.

Assyria

was a new empire in Mesopotamia founded by Assyrians, who lived in the north near the Tigris River. ? had fertile valley's that attracted invaders.

Hammurabi

Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia (died 1750 BC) King of the Babylonian empire; creator of the Code of ?, one of the world's oldest codes of law. He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar.

Babylon*****

In the 1800 B.C., a new group of people became powerful in Mesopotamia and built the city of Babylon by the Euphrates River. The largest and most important city in Mesopotamia.

Empire

is a group of many different lands under one ruler.

Sargon*****

The king of the Acadians was named Sargon. Sargon conquered all of Mesopotamia creating the world's first empire.

Anthropologist

...

Artifact

are weapons, tools, and other things made by humans.

Jericho*****

The Oldest Farming Village

Catal Huyak*****

One of the first true cities in history

Paleolithic Age*****

The earliest period of human history, or the Old Stone Age

Neolithic Age*****

People began to farm, build communities and trade.

Catal Huyak and Jericho*****

are two early human communities found in the Middle East.

Technology*****

Sumerians produced literature and invented TECHNOLOGY

Sumer*****

A region of city-states in Mesopotamia that was home to the FIRST CIVILIZATION.

Cuneiform*****

People in Sumer developed writing to keep track of business deals.

Sargon*****

Conquered all of Mesopotamia CREATING THE FIRST EMPIRE.

Specialization*****

Settled communities and food surpluses led to different kinds of jobs called specialization.

Assyrian's*****

Built one of the worlds first libraries in Ninevah.

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