FAM 2 Small Ruminant Metabolic DZ

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CU Toxicosis:
Max intake
Sheep
Cattle
Horses
When do problems occur?
Are goats susceptible?

Sheep: 25ppm
Cattle: 100ppm
Horses: 800ppm
Problems: sheep fed cattle/horse rations
Goats not as suceptible as sheep.

What is the simple form of Cu toxicosis?
Cu accumulates at what rate:

> Cu:Mo & Su Cu >>>>>> MO
Cu accumulates at 10:1

CU toxicosis: __ & ___ bind Cu and ____ liver accumulation.

Mo & Su
decrease

Cu toxicosis:
issues with pastures fertilized with ___ or ___ manure - animals fed ___.
Or Lambs fed ___ milk replacers.

poultry/swine - CuSo
Lambs fed calf milk replacers

Cu Toxicosis
Graze pasture with high ____ ratio.
Young plants ___ in ____
Subterranean clover is __ in ___

high Cu:Mo ratio
young plants - lo in MO
clover high in Cu

Cu Toxicosis
Hepatogenous - plant toxins damage ____. eg ___ & ____

liver
Senecio, helotropium

Cu in diet binds ___ & accumulates in ___. There is a ___ relese of Cu into ____ due to ___ or _____ --> leads to acute IV ___ decreased blood ____ and _____.

binds proteins --> liver
sudden release
blood
stress/spontaneous
hemolysis
dec blood gluathione
methemaglobinemia

Signs of Cu toxicosis:
behavior
feeding
feces
blood
MM

depression, anorexia, weakness, watery dark feces, anemia, hemaglobinuria, methemaglobinemia, icterus, muddy MM

Cu toxicosis on necropsy:
Liver
Kidney
Submit what samples? why?

yellow, friable liver
Dark red/blue-black kidney
Submit both - post Cu release, Liver may have normal Cu levels

Cu toxicosis TX:
PX: ___ once clinical signs
2 TX:
Work by decrease Cu ___ and increase Cu ____.

PX: poor once clinical signs
Ammonium molybdate & Na thiosulfate
or Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate - decreases Cu absorption and increase Cu excretion

Cu deficiency:
Due to __ ___ owners or a ___ ____ defecit.

over cautious
true nutritional

Cu deficiency:
Cu + ____ dec Cu availability
____ pastures b/c fertilizer contains ___ and ____ decreases Cu in forages.
hay vs fresh grass, legumes vs grass which worse for deficiency?

Mo --> dec Cu
improved fertilizers - contains Mo, --> dec Cu
Lime --> dec in Cu
Hay > fresh grass, Legumes > grass - relative binder amt - and worse vs best for Cu def.

Cu Deficiency C/S
Blood
Milk
Color
Heart
Fertility
Immunity
Growth
Joints
GI
other:

microcytic anemia
Dec milk production
Washed out hair color
Heart filure
substandard fertility
depressed immunity
Dec growth
Enlarged joints
diarrhea
Lamness

Cu deficiency
Enzootic Neonatal Ataxia
Born to __ deficient dam
Progressive incoordination starting at ___
C/S:
hair:
Due to high __ or ___ levels
Death w/i __ of c/s

Cu deficient
hind limbs
diarrhea, unthrifty, lo wt gain, loss of hair color, fractures
Loss of wool crimp, looks stringy, kinky
Usually due to high Mo or Su levels
Death within 3-4d of C/s

Cu deficiency enzootic ataxia dz
usually age:
recovery? w/what?
C/S
Necropsy:

usu neonates 2-3mo
+/- recovery with supplementation
Same C/S as enzootic neonatal
Demyelination of spinal cord and cerebral matter cavitation = big holes

Cu toxicosis - premortem Dx:
Liver biospsy - are serum levels always high?
Liver
Kidney
Serum levels

Serum may be normal before Cu release from liver.
Liver 350ppm
Kidney 100ppm
Serum 50-200ug/dL

Rib to take liver biospy near - and position:

T9-T10
Cranial surface T10 b/c never, artery, vein off caudal edge

Cu deficiency: - enzootic ataxia TX
Feed adequate:___ by supplementinng with __ ___.
Ratio Cu:Mo ideal:

adequate Cu intake - trace mineral supplmentation
5:1-10:1 for adequate absorption.

Vitamin E/Selenium Deficiency
Happens in which animals:
What areas:
Milk replacer with what?
High moisture grains have low levels of what?

-young/rapidly growing
-NW US & NE seaboard - Se deficiency, also all over US
-Milk replacer with fish, inseed, corn, or soybean oil - PUFAs --> inc free radicals
Low Vit E

Vit E/Selenium Deficiency:
Metabolism of PUFAS results in release of ___ ___.
Plants high in PUFAs ___ ____ ___.
Deficiencies result in ___ of ___ ___.

free radicals
Young growing plants
breakdown cell membranes

2 forms of Vit E/Selenium deficiency

cardiac
skeletal

vit E/Selenium deficiency
Cardiac form:
Causes myocardial ____
seen dead w/i ____
Lungs
HR
Lesions where?

peracute - acute
decompensation
Dead w/i 24hrs
Pulmonary edema - nasal froth
Inc HR w/irregular rhythm
Lesions in heart, diaphragm, intercostals

Vit E/Selenium
Skeletal form
Shows as:
Which muscles
HR? -due to?
Improvement?

-weakness/stiffness
-supporting muscles may be swollen, painful
-gastroc, semi-membranosis, tendinosis, neck, gluteals
-Inc HR from pain
-May improve with treatment

Vit E/Selenium Def DX
Look for Selenium in which samples? How to keep samples?
Vit E - how to evaluate?

-Serum, Liver, Se dependent glutathione peroxidase.
Found in RBCs - use whole blood
Keep sample refrigerated b4 testing
Vit E - difficult to eval

Rule outs for Vit E/Selenium Def

Clostridial myositis
Sepsis
Toxemia
Meningitis
Spinal cord trauma
Neurotoxins

Vit E/Selenium combination
Main ingredient - vit E?:
Forms:
Don't use which forms in sheep?
If pregnant?
For Vit E?

Vit E - preservative only, main ingredient = Selenium
Bo-Se (bovine)
L-Se - for lambs + piglets
Do not use Mu-Se in sheep, or E-Se --> too high
pregnant - half dose or will abort
Vit E - separate supplment

Vit E/Selenium Def Prevent:
Test ___ and provide Se ____
Rate of Se:
Mix what 2 things?
Avoid diets hi in ___

test forage & provide Se dietary supplements
0.7mg/h/d
Mix f/c fresh legumes & grasses
avoid high grains

Hypocalcemia - often seen with ____ during ____ of ____
PRegnant ewes need how much of what 2 things?
Serum Ca at what level says supplement:

preg tox, last 2 weeks gestation
8g Ca & 4g P/d
Ca <7mg/dL --> supplement

Hypocalcemia:
initially muscles are:
Then:
What is the final sign:

Initially hyperactive: - poor membrane stabilization from lack of calcium
Then ataxia/flacid paralysis - no Ca at synapses to cause Ach release
Bloat - no ruminal contractions

Hypocalcemia TX
How much Ca:
What route
What can prevent?

1g Ca/45kg body weight
Oral, IV, SQ - check product
Alfalfa prevents

PRegnancy toxemia
aka ____
During ___ trimester
# feti:
BCS of animals more prone:

Ketosis
Last trimester
multiple feti
thin/excessively obsese

Preg Tox due to ___ ____ ____
Decreased ___
Increased ____

negative energy balance
dec intake
inc demand

During ketosis which 2 substances are used in the TCA and which is low?

Oxaloacetate
Porprionate --> low

What is in excess druing ketosis in the TCA?
What happens to it?

oxaloacetate, from fatty acid breakdown
It backs up to Acetyl - CoA and is turned into 3 ketones

Pregnancy Toxemia C/S:
Glucose: only source of energy for (3)
Signs:
Attitude
position
CNS:
Teeth:

RBC, fetus, brain
depressed
recumbent
Stargazing
Incoordinated
Bruxism - grind teeth b/c headaches

Pregnancy Toxemia Dx:
(4)

ketonuria
history, clinical signs
Acidemia
Hypoglycemia

Preg tox: TX
Slight - moderately affected
focus on

re-establishing balance
IV dextrose 5% drip
Propyelne glycol - proprionate source
Transfaunation

Preg tox Severe affected TX
focus on:

focus: pregnancy
C - section
support ewe enough to allow fetal development until 10d pre-term but often lose ewe & lambs

Prenancy Toxemia Prevention
2 parts

US 50d - determine multiple feti
separate these and feed higher energy diet
Shear early to mid gestation to dec heat production

Goiter - breeds
___ deficient induced
Ingestion of ___ during gestation
____ compounds (4 examples)
___ deficient diet in dam.

Polled dorset, boer, and angora
Iodine deficient
Brassica - goiterogenic cmpds
Peanuts, soybeans, cherries, kale
Iodine deficient diet in dam

Goiter -
____ deficient diet during gestation
High ___ block absorption
____ deficient soil or ____ soil

Iodine
Nitrates block
Iodine or sandy

Goiter - congenital
breeds:
what type of gene:
Px:

Merino sheep, dutch, pygmy, Nubian goats
Recessive gene
Outgrow by 1yo

Goiter C/S:
neck
breathing:
neonate:
fiber:
skin:
tendons:
fertility:
newborns:
growth rate:
Milk production:

Neck - enlarged thyroid
Dyspnea
weak, hairless/wool-less neonate
Poor fiber quality
Dry, flaky skin
Tendon laxity
Subnormal fertility, lo libido, poor semen quality
Dead or weak newborns
Poor growth rate
Low milk production

Goiter DX
C/S: of __ ___
HX of 3
Low iodine in (3)
Low thyroxine - but stable?

CS - enlarged thyroid
HX: poor growth, wt loss, fleece quality
Low I in serum, plasma, milk
nrmal 2.1-9.3ug/dL
Low thyroxine - but variable, poor reliability

Goiter TX
During pregnancy esp ___ ___, give __ ___ ___
Avoid ___ plants
Give __ ___ in ___ getsation
or ___ in milk to newborn
congenital ___ response to tx

late gestation - trace mineral supplementaiton
Avoid brassica
200-300mg KIodide PO late gestation
3-5drops Lugos iodine to newborn
Congenital - poor response

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