When do problems occur?
Are goats susceptible?
Problems: sheep fed cattle/horse rations
Goats not as suceptible as sheep.
What is the simple form of Cu toxicosis?
Cu accumulates at what rate:
> Cu:Mo & Su Cu >>>>>> MO
Cu accumulates at 10:1
CU toxicosis: __ & ___ bind Cu and ____ liver accumulation.
Mo & Su
issues with pastures fertilized with ___ or ___ manure - animals fed ___.
Or Lambs fed ___ milk replacers.
poultry/swine - CuSo
Lambs fed calf milk replacers
Graze pasture with high ____ ratio.
Young plants ___ in ____
Subterranean clover is __ in ___
high Cu:Mo ratio
young plants - lo in MO
clover high in Cu
Hepatogenous - plant toxins damage ____. eg ___ & ____
Cu in diet binds ___ & accumulates in ___. There is a ___ relese of Cu into ____ due to ___ or _____ --> leads to acute IV ___ decreased blood ____ and _____.
binds proteins --> liver
dec blood gluathione
Signs of Cu toxicosis:
depression, anorexia, weakness, watery dark feces, anemia, hemaglobinuria, methemaglobinemia, icterus, muddy MM
Cu toxicosis on necropsy:
Submit what samples? why?
yellow, friable liver
Dark red/blue-black kidney
Submit both - post Cu release, Liver may have normal Cu levels
Cu toxicosis TX:
PX: ___ once clinical signs
Work by decrease Cu ___ and increase Cu ____.
PX: poor once clinical signs
Ammonium molybdate & Na thiosulfate
or Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate - decreases Cu absorption and increase Cu excretion
Due to __ ___ owners or a ___ ____ defecit.
Cu + ____ dec Cu availability
____ pastures b/c fertilizer contains ___ and ____ decreases Cu in forages.
hay vs fresh grass, legumes vs grass which worse for deficiency?
Mo --> dec Cu
improved fertilizers - contains Mo, --> dec Cu
Lime --> dec in Cu
Hay > fresh grass, Legumes > grass - relative binder amt - and worse vs best for Cu def.
Cu Deficiency C/S
Dec milk production
Washed out hair color
Enzootic Neonatal Ataxia
Born to __ deficient dam
Progressive incoordination starting at ___
Due to high __ or ___ levels
Death w/i __ of c/s
diarrhea, unthrifty, lo wt gain, loss of hair color, fractures
Loss of wool crimp, looks stringy, kinky
Usually due to high Mo or Su levels
Death within 3-4d of C/s
Cu deficiency enzootic ataxia dz
usu neonates 2-3mo
+/- recovery with supplementation
Same C/S as enzootic neonatal
Demyelination of spinal cord and cerebral matter cavitation = big holes
Cu toxicosis - premortem Dx:
Liver biospsy - are serum levels always high?
Serum may be normal before Cu release from liver.
Rib to take liver biospy near - and position:
Cranial surface T10 b/c never, artery, vein off caudal edge
Cu deficiency: - enzootic ataxia TX
Feed adequate:___ by supplementinng with __ ___.
Ratio Cu:Mo ideal:
adequate Cu intake - trace mineral supplmentation
5:1-10:1 for adequate absorption.
Vitamin E/Selenium Deficiency
Happens in which animals:
Milk replacer with what?
High moisture grains have low levels of what?
-NW US & NE seaboard - Se deficiency, also all over US
-Milk replacer with fish, inseed, corn, or soybean oil - PUFAs --> inc free radicals
Low Vit E
Vit E/Selenium Deficiency:
Metabolism of PUFAS results in release of ___ ___.
Plants high in PUFAs ___ ____ ___.
Deficiencies result in ___ of ___ ___.
Young growing plants
breakdown cell membranes
2 forms of Vit E/Selenium deficiency
vit E/Selenium deficiency
Causes myocardial ____
seen dead w/i ____
peracute - acute
Dead w/i 24hrs
Pulmonary edema - nasal froth
Inc HR w/irregular rhythm
Lesions in heart, diaphragm, intercostals
HR? -due to?
-supporting muscles may be swollen, painful
-gastroc, semi-membranosis, tendinosis, neck, gluteals
-Inc HR from pain
-May improve with treatment
Vit E/Selenium Def DX
Look for Selenium in which samples? How to keep samples?
Vit E - how to evaluate?
-Serum, Liver, Se dependent glutathione peroxidase.
Found in RBCs - use whole blood
Keep sample refrigerated b4 testing
Vit E - difficult to eval
Rule outs for Vit E/Selenium Def
Spinal cord trauma
Vit E/Selenium combination
Main ingredient - vit E?:
Don't use which forms in sheep?
For Vit E?
Vit E - preservative only, main ingredient = Selenium
L-Se - for lambs + piglets
Do not use Mu-Se in sheep, or E-Se --> too high
pregnant - half dose or will abort
Vit E - separate supplment
Vit E/Selenium Def Prevent:
Test ___ and provide Se ____
Rate of Se:
Mix what 2 things?
Avoid diets hi in ___
test forage & provide Se dietary supplements
Mix f/c fresh legumes & grasses
avoid high grains
Hypocalcemia - often seen with ____ during ____ of ____
PRegnant ewes need how much of what 2 things?
Serum Ca at what level says supplement:
preg tox, last 2 weeks gestation
8g Ca & 4g P/d
Ca <7mg/dL --> supplement
initially muscles are:
What is the final sign:
Initially hyperactive: - poor membrane stabilization from lack of calcium
Then ataxia/flacid paralysis - no Ca at synapses to cause Ach release
Bloat - no ruminal contractions
How much Ca:
What can prevent?
1g Ca/45kg body weight
Oral, IV, SQ - check product
During ___ trimester
BCS of animals more prone:
Preg Tox due to ___ ____ ____
negative energy balance
During ketosis which 2 substances are used in the TCA and which is low?
Porprionate --> low
What is in excess druing ketosis in the TCA?
What happens to it?
oxaloacetate, from fatty acid breakdown
It backs up to Acetyl - CoA and is turned into 3 ketones
Pregnancy Toxemia C/S:
Glucose: only source of energy for (3)
RBC, fetus, brain
Bruxism - grind teeth b/c headaches
Pregnancy Toxemia Dx:
history, clinical signs
Preg tox: TX
Slight - moderately affected
IV dextrose 5% drip
Propyelne glycol - proprionate source
Preg tox Severe affected TX
C - section
support ewe enough to allow fetal development until 10d pre-term but often lose ewe & lambs
Prenancy Toxemia Prevention
US 50d - determine multiple feti
separate these and feed higher energy diet
Shear early to mid gestation to dec heat production
Goiter - breeds
___ deficient induced
Ingestion of ___ during gestation
____ compounds (4 examples)
___ deficient diet in dam.
Polled dorset, boer, and angora
Brassica - goiterogenic cmpds
Peanuts, soybeans, cherries, kale
Iodine deficient diet in dam
____ deficient diet during gestation
High ___ block absorption
____ deficient soil or ____ soil
Iodine or sandy
Goiter - congenital
what type of gene:
Merino sheep, dutch, pygmy, Nubian goats
Outgrow by 1yo
Neck - enlarged thyroid
weak, hairless/wool-less neonate
Poor fiber quality
Dry, flaky skin
Subnormal fertility, lo libido, poor semen quality
Dead or weak newborns
Poor growth rate
Low milk production
C/S: of __ ___
HX of 3
Low iodine in (3)
Low thyroxine - but stable?
CS - enlarged thyroid
HX: poor growth, wt loss, fleece quality
Low I in serum, plasma, milk
Low thyroxine - but variable, poor reliability
During pregnancy esp ___ ___, give __ ___ ___
Avoid ___ plants
Give __ ___ in ___ getsation
or ___ in milk to newborn
congenital ___ response to tx
late gestation - trace mineral supplementaiton
200-300mg KIodide PO late gestation
3-5drops Lugos iodine to newborn
Congenital - poor response