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Chapter 5

Learning

Process by which experience or practice results in relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior

Conditioning

Fairly specific patterns of behavior in the presence of well-defined stimuli

Classical Conditioning

Selective behaviors come to be emitted in the presence of specific stimuli to gain reward or to avoid a punishment

Unconditioned Stimulus

Invariably prompts a certain reaction. EX: Food prompts salvation

Unconditioned Response

Results from unconditioned stimulus. EX: Whenever a dog is given food, its mouth waters

Conditional Stimulus

a stimulus that yields a response only after learning has occurred

Conditional Response

Behavior that an animal has learned in response to the conditioned response to the conditioned stimulus

Desensitization Therapy

Being able to overcome fears by learning to remain calm

Operant Behavior

Learned behaviors that are designed to operate on the environment on a way that will gain something desired or avoid something unpleasant

Reinforcers

Consequences that that increase the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated

Punisher

Consequences that decrease the chances that a behavior will be repeated

Law of Effect

The theory of "reinforcers" and "punishers"

Positive Reinforcers

Adding something rewarding to the environment such as food or pleasant music

Negative Reinforcers

Subtracting something unpleasant from a environment

Punishment

To get punished for doing something such as receiving a speeding ticket

Avoidance Training

Having people avoid doing things by threatening a punishment; therefor, not actually punishing

Learned Helplessness

the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events

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