Also known as AChE, is an enzyme that degrades the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Lack of sweating
An anticholinergic drug that blocks parasympathetic effects, routinely administered preoperatively to suppress salivation and respiratory system secretions during surgery, used by ophthalmologists to dilate the pupils for eye examination. Antidote for chemical warfare agents that inactivate acetylcholinesterase
Autonomic nervous system
A system of visceral sensory (afferent) and visceral motor (efferent) neurons that regulates the activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and many glands. Divided into three parts; Sympathetic, Enteric, and Parasympathetic nervous systems.
Tangled networks of neurons formed jointly by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Present in the PAT (Pelvis, abdomen, and Thorax).
Information about the body parameter obtained by monitoring devices and displayed to the person being monitored provides biofeedback, and may enable the individual to lean to exercise a degree of conscious control over the parameter monitored. (treatment for headaches and migraines)
Two large irregularly shaped masses of nerve tissue in the upper abdomen. These are the largest ganglia in the ANS and innervate most of the digestive tract. Part of the sympathetic subdivision of the ANS,
a complex network of nerves located in the abdomen. Also called solar plexus.
All sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic. All parasympathetic postganglionic neurons that innervate sweat glands. Somatic nervous system motor neurons.
Neuroendocrine cells found in the medulla of the adrenal gland and in other ganglia of the SNS
Portion of the PNS where preganglionic neurons run from the sacral. Contains pelvic splanchnic nerves.
Axons of the parasympathetic preganglionic neurons.
Receiving impulses from both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons.
A hormone and neurotransmitter that increases heart rate, constricts blood vessels, dilates air passage (part of fight or flight).
sensory receptor adapted for reception of stimuli from outside the body
gray ramus communicans
A branch from the adjacent ganglion of the sympathetic trunk that each spinal cord has.
A deficiency of sympathetic outflow through the superior cervical ganglion on the ipsilateral side of the symptoms resulting from injury, inherited mutation, or disease.
inferior cervical ganglion
Postganglionic sympathetic fibers that supply the heart.
Signals (inputs) to the ANS that are not consciously perceived most of the time, but may produce sensation in intense activation.
Classification of Drugs that inactivates norepinephrine released into the synapses of postganglionic sympathetic division neurons. They help to relieve depression by prolonging norepinephrine on postsynaptic membrane (feel good neurotransmitter).
Constriction of the pupil of the eye to two millimeters or less
A type of Cholinergic receptor that binds Acetylcholine (ACh). Also bind a poison called muscarine and mimics the action of ACh.
A anticholinesterase drug. It inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, thus preventing enzymatic breakdown of ACh, allowing it to accumulate in the synapses. Used to treat myasthenia gravis disease.
A type of Cholinergic receptor that binds Acetylcholine (ACh). Also binds nicotine that mimics the action of ACh.
A neurotransmitter frequently targeted by antidepressants due to it being a "feel good" transmitter.
parasympathetic nervous system (branch)
one of the two divisions of the ANS. Specificly responsible for stimulation of the "rest and digest" activities.
Ganglia that are anterior to the vertebral column, close to the large abdominal arteries.
The sense of the relative postion of neighbouring parts of the body and effort being employed in movement.
drooping of the upper eyelid.
Excessive sympathetic stimulation of smooth muscles in the arterioles of the digits (fingers and toes become ischemic (lack blood) after exposure to cold or with emotional stress).
somatic nervous system
Part of the peripheral nervous system, associated with voluntary movements of skeletal muscles.
splanchnic nerve (neuron)
Sympathetic preganglionic neurons pass through the trunk without terminating in it, then terminate in the prevertebral ganglia. (Splanchnic means pertaining to the viscera). Supplies nerves to the liver, stomach, spleen, kidney, and small intestine.
sympathetic nervous system (branch)
One of the three parts of the ANS. General action is to movilize the body's nervous system for the flight-or-flight response. It is always active at a basal level to maintain homeostasis. Also called the thoracolumbat division.
Paired bundles of nerve fibers that run from the base of the skull to the coccyx. Also called Sympathetic trunks and gangliated cord.
sympathetic chain ganglia
ganglia's found along the length of the sympathetic trunk. Are distinguished as cervical, thoracic, lumber, and sacral; closely correspond in number to the vertebrae.
sympathetic trunk ganglia
Paired bundles of nerve fibers that run from the base of the skull to the coccyx. Also called Sympathetic chain and gangliated cord.
Located close to or within the wall of visceral organ. Where Preganglionic axons of the parasympathetic division synapse with the postganglionic neurons.
An alternate name of the Sympathetic nervous system. (One of the three parts of the ANS. General action is to movilize the body's nervous system for the flight-or-flight response. It is always active at a basal level to maintain homeostasis.)
Axons of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons.
white ramus communicans
Present only in the thoracic and first two (or three) lumber nerves (T1-L2) since those are the only regions with sympathetic outflow.