Anatomy and Physiology of Cranial Nerves

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Cranial Nerves section of Anatomy and Physiology of Speech and Hearing Mechanisms

5th Cranial Nerve

Trigeminal

7th Cranial Nerve

Facial

8th Cranial Nerve

Vestibulocochlear

9th Cranial Nerve

Glossopharyngeal

10th Cranial Nerve

Vagus

11th Cranial Nerve

Accessory

12th Cranial Nerve

Hypoglossal

What does the motor branch of the Trigeminal Nerve do?

innervates the muclses of mastication (chewing muscles)

What are the three sensory branches of the Trigeminal Nerve?

Ophthalmic, maxiallary and mandibular

What nerve supplies sensation to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?

Lingual nerve of the mandibluar nerve branch

What nerve supplies motor information to the tensory tympani and tensor veli palatini muscles?

Trigeminal Nerve

What are some symptoms of Trigeminal nerve damage?

facial pain or difficulty for opening and closing jaw

How do you test for trigeminal nerve damage?

touching the three areas of the face and looking for symmetry of opening and closing jaw

What does the motor branch of the Facial Nerve do?

innervates facial muscles and stapedius muscle

What does the sensory branch of the facial nerve do?

provides taste for the anterior 2/3 of tongue via the Chorda Tympani

What specifically provides taste to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?

Chorda Tympani

What are some symptoms of facial nerve damage?

Unilateral facial paralysis

How do you test for Facial Nerve Damage?

sustained /i/ /u/ sounds

What does the Vestibulocochlear Nerve do?

sensory info to ear and helps balance

What are symptoms of Vestibulocochlear damage?

deafness or hearing loss, vertigo

What portion of the Vestibulocochlear Nerve enters the brainstem at the lower pons lateral to the facial nerve?

Cochlear Portion

What portion of the Vestibulocochlear Nerve enters the vestibular nuclei in the lower pons/upper medulla?

Vestiblar Portion

How do you test for Vestibulocochlear damage?

audiological and balance testing

What does the motor branch of the Glossopharyngeal nerve do?

motor info to the muscles of the pharynx

What does the sensory branch of the Glossopharyngeal nerve do?

taste to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue and sensation to posterior portion of the oral cavity

What is the name of the motor nuclei that supplies motor information to the Glossopharyngeal nerve?

Nucleus Ambiguus

What are some symptoms of Glossopharyngeal damage?

dysphagia, loss of gag reflex

What are the three major branches of the Vagus Nerve involved in Speech?

Pharyngeal nerve, Superior Laryngeal Nerve, Recurrent nerve

What cranial nerve supplies motor information to the pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles?

Vagus Nerve

What cranial nerve supplies sensory information to the pharynx and larynx?

Vagus Nerve

What is the motor nuclei for the Vagus Nerve?

Nucleus Ambiguus

What does the Pharyngeal nerve branch of the Vagus nerve do?

motor and sensory information to the muscles of the pharynx and soft palate

What nerve provides motor and senory information to the larynx (vocal folds)?

Superior Laryngeal Nerve

The Superior Laryngeal Nerve provides motor information to what two specific structures?

Cricothyroid and Inferior Constrictor muscles

What muscle is responsible for pitch changes?

Cricothyroid muscle

What does the External Portion of the Superior Laryngeal Nerve do?

motor information for the Cricothyroid

What does the Internal Portion of the Superior Laryngeal Nerve do?

sensory information to the pharynx (throat)

What branch of the Vagus Nerve provides motor information to the muscles of the pharynx (except the cricothyroid)?

Recurrent Nerve

The recurrent nerve is sensory to the

Esophagus and trachea

The left Recurrent branch loops around

the Aorta

The right Recurrent branch loops around

the right subclavian artery

Aphonia, dysphonia, dysphagia and hypernasal speech are symptoms of:

Vagus Nerve damage

Checking for soft palate elevation or having the client produce a sustained phonation for voice quality is a way to test the:

Vagus Nerve

What is the motor nuclei for the Accessory Nerve?

Nucleus Ambiguus

The Accessory Nerve provides motor information to the:

soft palate and larynx

This portion of the Accessory Nerve supplements motor innevation of the Vagus nerve:

Cranial

Which portion of the Accessory nerve creates head movement?

Spinal portion

There is damage to the __________ if the patient cannot shrug their shoulders.

Accessory Nerve

If you have the client say "ahhhh" or move their head up and down, you are checking for damage to what Cranial Nerve?

Accessory Nerve

What Cranial Nerve provides motor information to the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue?

Hypoglossal Nerve

What is a symptom of Hypoglossal Nerve damage?

deviation of tongue to side of lesion

If you ask the client to stick their tongue out and move it side to side, which Cranial Nerve are you checking for damage?

Hypoglossal Nerve

Sensory or Motor: Trigeminal Nerve

Mixed

Sensory or Motor: Facial Nerve

Mixed, mainly motor

Sensory or Motor: Vestibulocochlear

Sensory

Sensory or Motor: Glossopharyngeal Nearve

Mixed

Sensory or Motor: Vagus

Mixed Nerve

Sensory or Motor: Accessory Nerve

Motor only

Sensory or Motor: Hypoglossal Nerve

Motor only

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