Ap English Poetry Terms
|Metaphor|| One thing is compared to something very different|
"Death, that long sleep."
|Simile|| Comparison of two dissimilar things using the words "like", "as", or "than".|
"The two sisters were like two blossoms."
|Metonymy|| Metaphor in which the figurative is closely related to the literal|
"For a handful of silver he betrayed me."
|Synecdoche|| Part of a thing used in place of the whole.|
"O, beautiful for Pilgrim's feet..." "I lover her eyes."
|Conceit|| Surprising and unusual comparison between two very different things|
Comparing God to a gypsy
|Pun|| Wordplay in which a phrase or word has two very different meanings, or in which two phrases or words have the same sound.|
"She used to be Snow White but she drifted."
|Personification|| Nonhuman subject is given human characteristics.|
"Bright star, would I were steadfast as thou art."
|Apostrophe|| Addressing an absent person or a personified quality, object, or idea.|
"Bright star, would I were steadfast..."
|Symbol|| Anything that represents something else, usually an idea, abstraction, or organization.|
Red rose = Love <3
|Onomatopoeia|| Use of words that imitate sounds.|
"My mother set up sounds that slugged and thunked for hours."
|Irony|| A technique that involves interesting contradictions|
"Yes, curious and quaint war is..."
|Verbal Irony|| The use of words which suggest the opposite of their usual meaning.|
"Yes, curious and quaint war is..."
|Oxymoron|| Two contradictory terms juxtaposed |
|Paradox|| Statement that seems to be contradictory but actually presents the truth|
"Unless you imprison me, I will never be free."
|Hyperbole|| Deliberate exaggeration or overstatement.|
"I will love thee still, my dear, till all the seas run dry."
|Litotes|| An affirmative is expressed by the negation of its opposite.|
"This is no small problem."
|Tone||The writers attitude toward the subject matter|
|Mood||Atmosphere or the feeling created by a literary work|
|Diction||Word choice which creates mood, style, etc.|
|Rhyme|| repetition of sounds at the ends of words|
"Saxon words say what they mean, Latin words perplex the bean.
|Masculine Rhyme|| Rhyme that is single, stressed, and on the ending syllable|
"The cat in the hat."
|Feminine Rhyme|| Rhyme in which two syllables are involved with the second unstressed.|
"Pleasure and Treasure."
|Alliteration|| Repetition of initial consonant sounds.|
"The world is charged with the Grandeur of God."
|Internal Rhyme|| Rhyme within a single line of poetry. |
"All is seared with trade; bleared, smeared with toll."
|Near/Slant/Approximate rhyme|| Rhyme that is similar but not identical. |
"Prove and Love."
|Assonance|| Repetition of similar vowel sounds with different consonant sounds. |
"In Xanadu did Kubla Khan..."
|Consonance|| Repetition of consonant sounds with different vowel sounds preceding. |
Over hill and dale.
|Sonnet||A 14 line poem, usually composed of a statement (problem) and a resolution|
|English (Shakespearean) Sonnet|| A sonnet with 3 quatrains and a couplet |
ABAB CDCD EFEF GG
|Italian (Petrarchan) Sonnet|| A sonnet with an Octave and a sestet. |
ABBA CDDC (Some combination of CDE)
|Ballad||Narrative poem intended to be sung and broken into simple stanzas and refrains|
|Folk Epic|| Anonymous author and passed down orally. |
|Epic||Long narrative about the adventures of gods or a hero who represents the sallent values of the culture.|
|Literary Epic|| An epic crafted by one poet. |
|Elegy||Solemn and lyric poem about death|
|Lyric||Poem that expresses feelings or a single speaker but does not tell a full story.|
|Allegory|| Work with two levels of meaning: One literal and the other symbolic. Characters represent qualities. |
Lord of the Flies
|Narrative|| Tells a story in verse. |
"The Rime of the Ancient Mariner."
|Didactic||Its purpose is to teach moral lessons|
|Villanelle|| 19 line French verse from with lots of refrains and mostly ABA rhyme scheme. |
"Do Not Go Gentle..."
|Postoral||Poem that deals with pleasure of simple, rural life of shepherds and goatherds.|
|Ode||Long, formal lyric poem with a serious theme|
|Dramatic Monologue|| Poem in which an imaginary character speaks to a silent listener. |
Mary Robt. Browning poems.
|Stanza||Group of lines in a poem considered a unit|
|Blank verse||Rhymed iambic pentameter|
|Free verse||Poetry not written in a regular rhythmical pattern or meter.|
|Antithesis|| Contrasting or paradoxical ideas presented in parallel form. |
"To err is human, to forgive, divine."
|Allusion|| Reference to a well-known person, event, or literary work, or work of art. |
"By Cupid's strongest bow..."
|Aphorism (Epigram)||A general truth or observation about life, usually stated concisely and pointedly.|
|Denotation|| The objective meaning of a word independent of any associations one may make with it.|
|Connotation|| The associations that a word calls to mind. |
"Home" can mean warmth security
|Heroic Couplet (Closed Couplet)|| Rhymed pair of iambic pentameter lines which form a complete thought. |
"True ease in writing come from art not chance,/ As those move easiest have learned to dance."
|Imagery|| Descriptive language used to re-create sensory experience. |
"The coming musk-rose, full of dewy wine, / The murmurous haunt of flies on summer eves."
|Mock Epic|| Poem about a trivial matter written in the style of a serious epic. |
The Rape of the Lock.
|Run-On Line||Line of poetry that does not contain a pause or stop at the end of the line.|
|Scansion||Process of analyzing the metrical pattern of a poem.|
|Speaker||The imaginary voice assume by the writer of a poem.|
|Theme||The central idea, concern, or purpose in a literary work.|