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Come to lovely southern California

Cervial plane,thoracic planbe,Lumbar plane,Sacrum,Coccyx

Certical Vertebrea

c1-c7 located in the neck

Thoracic Vertebrea

t1-t12 located in the chest ( each vertebrea are joined with one of the 12 pairs of ribs

Lumbar vertebrea

L1-L5 located in the lower back ( bear the weight of the head, neck, and trunk of the body

Sacrum

group of 5 fused vertebrea ( joins with the hip bones in the posterior

Coccyx

(tail bone) group of 4 small fused vertebrea

causes of low back pain

lifting to much or wrong way, poor posture, weekend athlete, overweight or over stressed

what % of americans experience low back pain at one point in their life

80-85

back pain can result from

sudden injury, weak/ inflexible muscles, poor posture, poor body mechanics

Clavicle

( collar bone) thin, rod like bone! On each side of the anterior neck, connects to the manubrium of the sternum and lateral to the scapula

scapula

shoulder blade

arm bones

humerous, radius, alna

wrist contains how many carpal bones?

8

each hand contains _ metacarcal bones

5

each finger contains _ phalangal bones except the thumb which contains _

3,2

distal phalanx

the final bone at the tip of the finger

pelvis includes the

hip, sacrum,coccyx of the vertebral comumn

carpla

wrist

phalanges

fingers

metacarpals

bones that are after the wrist ( hand)

hip bones include

ilium, ischium, and pubis on each side of the spinal columns

ilium

hip bone( most superior of the hip bone, has a broad, flaring rim

ischium

most inferior of the hip bone ( seat bones, you sit on them)

pubis or pubic bone

small bridgelike bone, the most anterior of the hip bone

femur

(thigh bone) long bone in the upper leg

Tibia

(shin bone) large bone on the medial side of the leg

fibula

very thin bone on the lateral side of the lower leg

patella

( knee cap) small round bone, anterior to the knee joint

each ankle contains _ tarsal bones

7

talus

first tarsal bone (right above the heel)

calcaneus

(heel bone)

midfoot contains _ metatarsal bones

5

instep

arch of the foot

each toe contains _ phalangel bones except the big toe which contains _

3,2

hallux

big toe

distal phalanx

very tip of the toe

colles fracture

distal radius is broken by falling onto an outstretched hand

comminuted fracture

bone is crushed into several pieces

compression fracture

vertebrea are compressed together when a person falls onto the buttocks

depressed fracture

cranium is fractured inward toward the brain

greenstick fracture

bone is broke on only one side

hairline fracture

very thin fracture with the bone pieces still together, difficult to detect except on x-ray

obligue fracture

bone is broken at an oblique angle

spiral fracture

bone is broken in a spiral because of a twisting force

transverse fracture

bone is broken in a transverse plane, perpendicular to its long axis

ankylosing spondylitis

chronis inflammation of the vertebrea that leads to fibrosis, restriction of movement and stiffening of the spine

kyphosis

abnormal, excessive, posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (humpback)

lordosis

abnormal, excessive, anterior curvature of the lumbar spine (swayback)

scoliosis

abnormal, excessive, C-shaped or S-shaped lateral curvature of the back

gout

metabolic disorder that occurs most often in men. High level of uric acid in the blood

hemarthrosis

blood in the joint cavity from blunt trama or penetrating wound

lyme disease

arthritis caused by a bacterium in the bite of an infected deer tick

osteoarthritis

chronic inflammatory disease of the joints, particulary the large overweight bearing joints

rheumatoid arthritis

acute and chronic inflammatory disease of the connective tissues

sprain

overstretching or tearing a ligament

torn meniscus

tear of the cartilage pad of the knee because of an injury

genu valgum

congenital deformity in which the knees are rotated toward the midline and are abnormally close together and lower legs bent laterally

genu varum

congenital deformity in which the knees are rotated laterally away from each other and the lower legs are bent toward the midline

hallux valgus

deformity in which the great toe is angled laterally toward the ptehr tpes

talipes equinovarus

congenital deformity in which the foot is pulled downward and toward the midline

_ muscles to smile, _ muscles to frown

17,43

number of muscles in the body

700

high intensity training takes how long for results ( usually)

6-8 weeks

What is the largest muscle in the body

guiteus maximus

what is the most frequently injured muscle in the body

erector spinal

origin

begining of a muscle

insertion

ending of a muscle

strongest muscle in the body

jaw

biceps brachii

2 muscles ( arm flexion)

triceps brachii

3 muscles ( arm extension)

thenar muscles

bend the thumb

brachioradialis

bend the lower arm toward the upper arm ( flexion)

What muscle groups make up your abdomen

lower back , hips, abdomen

deltoid

used to raise the arm, abduction

pectoralis major

arm abduction

intercostal muscles

between ribs ( contraction- relaxation during breathing coughing and sneezing

trapezius

raises the shoulder, pulls shoulder blades together, involved in head movement

latissimus dorsi

moves arm toward spinal columns

rectus femoris

bends the upper leg toward the abdomen

sartorius

bends the upper leg toward the abdomen

vastus lateralis and vastus medialis

bends the upper leg toward the abdomen/ straighten the lower leg

peroneus longus

raises the lateral edge of the foot

tibialis anterior

bends the foot up toward the leg

biceps femoris

moves the upper leg posteriorly

semitendinous and semimembranosus

move the upper leg posteriiorly, bend the lower leg toward the buttocks

gastrocnemius

bends the foot downward

largest muscle

gluteus maximus

soleus

width of the calf muscle

muscle fascicle

bundle of individual muscle fibers

muscle fibers

hundreds of nuclei along its length to speed up chemical processes

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