The Endocrine System

106 terms by DrBremer 

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This set of terms comes from Chapter 15 in your text.

Adrenal Cortex

The outer portion of the adrenal gland that produces glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, and sex hormones.

Adrenal Glands

Two endocrine glands located near the cranial poles of the kidneys; each consists of an outer cortex and an inner medulla.

Adrenal Medulla

The inner portion of the adrenal gland that produces the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, which in turn activates the cortex of the adrenal gland. The adrenal cortex then releases its own hormones.

ACTH

Abbreviation for adrenocorticotropic hormone; vital to the normal function and development of the adrenal cortex.

Aldosterone

A mineralocorticoid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. Stimulates the kidney to conserve sodium ions and water and to eliminate potassium and hydrogen ions.

Alopecia

Hair loss.

Anabolism

The form of metabolism by which cells build complex compounds from simpler ones, using energy.

Androgens

Hormones that promote the development of male characteristics; male sex hormones. The principle one is testosterone.

Anterior Pituitary Gland

The adenohypophysis; the rostral portion of the pituitary gland that produces seven hormones, many of which influence other endocrine glands. Develops from glandular tissue.

Antidiuretic Hormone

A hormone released by the posterior pituitary; facilitates water conservation in the body by promoting water reabsorption from urine in the collecting ducts.

ADH

Abbreviation for antidiuretic hormone; low levels of this hormone result in diabetes insipidus.

Atrophy

Shrinkage.

Calcitonin

The hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that prevents the level of calcium in the blood from getting too high; deposits calcium into the "bone bank."

Calorigenic

Heat producing.

Catabolism

The breaking down of nutrients into smaller and simpler materials for use by the cell to produce energy.

Cell-mediated Immunity

The portion of the immune system that produces "killer" cells that directly attack foreign invaders.

Cholecystokinin

A hormone released by the duodenum when chyme enters from the stomach; slows gastric emptying and motility while increasing intestinal motility. Also stimulates the pancreas to release digestive enzymes into the duodenum.

Chorionic Gonadotropin

A hormone produced by the placenta of a pregnant animal.

Chyme

The semifluid, partially digested food that leaves the stomach and enters the duodenum.

Corpus Luteum

Literally "yellow body." The solid endocrine structure that forms from the empty ovarian follicle after ovulation under stimulation from luteinizing hormone; it produces progestin hormones, principally progesterone. that are necessary to maintain pregnancy.

Diabetes Insipidus

A disease resulting from a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone from the posterior pituitary gland; results in PUPD.

Diabetes Mellitus

A disease resulting from a deficiency of the hormone insulin from the pancreatic islets; lack of insulin prevents glucose from entering cells and being used as energy. Results in hyperglycemia, glycosuria, PUPD, polyphagia and weight loss.

Diencephalon

Serves as a nervous system passageway between the primitive brain stem and the cerebrum; three major structures include the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pituitary.

Diuresis

Producing and passing large amounts of urine.

Eclampsia

A condition seen in lactating dogs and cats that results from hypocalcemia; early signs include muscle tremors and spasms.

Endocrine Gland

Glands or cells that release their regulatory products (hormones) directly into the bloodstream; control most metabolic functions.

Endocrinology

The study of the endocrine system.

Epinephrine

Commonly called adrenaline; a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla under stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system. Produces part of the fight-or-flight response that results when an animal feels threatened.

Erythropoietin

The hormone produced by the kidney in response to hypoxia that stimulates the red bone marrow to increase its production of red blood cells.

Estrogens

Hormones produced by the developing follicle that promote the development of female characteristics; prepares the female for breeding.

Exocrine Gland

Glands that release their secretions through ducts that lead directly to the location intended to be controlled.

Fight-or-Flight Response

A whole-body response resulting from an animal feeling threatened that prepares the body for intense physical activity; results from a combination of direct sympathetic nerve stimulation and the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine into the bloodstream from the adrenal medulla.

Follicle

In the ovary, consists of an oocyte surrounded by fluid and the cells that produced it; thyroid _____ contain small globules of thyroid hormone precursor called colloid surrounded by simple cuboidal cells.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone

The anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the growth and development of follicles in the ovary of the female; triggers spermatogenesis in the male.

FSH

Abbreviation for follicle-stimulating hormone.

Gastrin

A hormone produced by the G cells in the stomach; stimulates the gastric glands to secrete hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes to start the digestive process and cause the fundus to relax.

Glucagon

A hormone produced by the pancreas that raises blood glucose by stimulating the liver to break down glycogen and engage in gluconeogenesis.

Glucocorticoid Hormones

A group of hormones with similar actions produced by the adrenal cortex; the most prominent effect is to raise blood glucose levels. Other effects: help the body to resist the effects of stress and to maintain blood pressure.

Gluconeogenesis

The production of glucose from amino acids that occurs in the liver.

Glycosuria

The presence of glucose in the urine.

Gonadotropin

A hormone that stimulates the growth and development of the gonads; usually refers to follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.

Gonads

The organs that produce the reproductive cells; testis in the male and ovary in the female.

Growth Hormone

The anterior pituitary hormone that promotes body growth in young animals and helps regulate the metabolism of porteins (anabolism), carbohydrates, and lipids (catabolism) in all of the body's cells. Also called somatotropic hormone or somatotropin.

Hormones

Chemical messengers of the body that are produced and excreted by specific cells (endocrine glands) for the purpose of regulating organs and cells.

Hyperadrenocorticism

Excessive secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex; also called Cushing's disease. Common signs include PUPD, polyphagia, and a pot-bellied appearance.

Hypercalcemia

An excess level of calcium in the blood.

Hypoadrenocorticism

Deficient secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex; also called Addison's disease.

Hypocalcemia

Too low a level of calcium in the blood.

Hypoglycemia

Too low a level of glucose in the blood.

Hypothalamus

A portion of the diencephalon that has extensive links to the brain and to the pituitary gland; functions as an important bridge between the nervous and endocrine systems.

Hypoxia

Oxygen deficiency.

Hyperglycemia

Too high a level of glucose in the blood.

Iatrogenic

A condition caused by medical treatment given to an animal.

Insulin

A hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets; main action is to allow glucose to be absorbed into body cells and used for energy, decreasing blood glucose levels.

Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone

The anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells in the testes to produce testosterone; also known as luteinizing hormone.

Lactation

Milk production by the mammary gland.

Luteinizing Hormone

The anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates ovulation in most species and then causes the empty follicle to develop into the corpus luteum. Stimulates the interstitial cells of the testes to produce testosterone.

LH

Abbreviation for luteininzing hormone.

Luteolysis

Destruction of the corpus luteum.

Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone

The anterior pituitary hormone that apparently influences the pigment cells of the skin; its precise role in mammals is not well understood.

MSH

Abbreviation for Melanocyte-Stimulaing Hormone.

Melatonin

A hormonelike substance produced by the pineal body; appears to affect moods and wake-sleep cycles and may affect timing of seasonal estrus in some species.

Milk Fever

A disease seen in lactating cattle that results from hypocalcemia; signs include muscle weakness and an inability to stand.

Milk Letdown

The immediate effect of nursing or milking; movement of milk from the alveoli and small ducts down into the larger ducts and sinuses, where it is accessible for nursing or milking. Results from oxytocin release.

Mineralocorticoid Hormone

A group of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex that regulate the levels of some electrolytes in the body (sodium); principle hormone is aldosterone.

Myometrium

The muscle layer of the uterus

Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs

Drugs not related to glucocorticoids that reduce pain and inflammation.

Norepinephrine

A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla under stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system; produces part of the fight-or-flight response that results when the animal is threatened.

Oogenesis

The production of the female reproductive cells in the ovarian follicles.

Ovaries

The female gonads; they produce the female reproductive cell, the ovum, as well as estrogen and progestin hormones.

Oxytocin

One of the posterior pituitary hormones; it is produced in the hypothalamus and stored and released from the posterior pituitary gland. Stimulates contraction of the myometrium of the uterus at breeding and parturition and contraction of the myoepithelial cells of the lactating mammary gland.

Pancreas

Endocrine and exocrine gland that produces and secretes digestive enzymes into the intestine and produces hormones like inulin and glucagon.

Pancreatic Islets

The endocrine portion of the pancreas; composed of thousands of microscopic clumps of cells scattered throughout the organ. Also called the islets of Langerhans.

Parathyroid Glands

Endocrine glands consisting of several small nodules located in, on, or near the thyroid gland. They produce parathyroid hormone.

Parathyroid Hormone

The hormone secreted by the parathyroid gland that prevents the level of calcium in the blood from getting too low; also called parathormone.

PTH

Abbreviation for parathyroid hormone; prevents hypocalcemia by increasing absorption in the GI tract, increasing retention in the kidney and removing from the "bone bank."

Parturition

The birth process.

Pineal Body

A structure in the brain located at the caudal end of the deep cleft that separates the two cerebral hemispheres, just rostral to the cerebellum. It produces the hormonelike substance melatonin that appears to influence the body's biological clock.

Pituitary Gland

The master endocrine gland; a pea-sized endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. Made up of the anterior pituitary gland, which produces seven known hormones, and the posterior pituitary gland, which stores and releases two hormones from the hypothalamus.

Placenta

A life-support system for a developing fetus; a multilayered, fluid-filled membranous sac that surrounds the fetus and links it to the blood supply of the uterus. It is an important endocrine organ.

Polydipsia

Excessive thirst

Polyphagia

Excessive appetite

Polyuria

Production of an excessive volume of urine.

Posterior Pituitary Gland

The neurohypophysis; the caudal portion of the pituitary gland that stores and releases two hormones (ADH and oxytocin) that are produced in the hypothalamus. Develops from nervous tissue.

Progesterone

The principle progestin hormone produced by the corpus luteum of the ovary; it helps prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilized ovum and helps maintain pregnancy once it begins.

Progestins

Hormones produced by the corpus luteum of the ovary necessary for the maintenance of pregnancy; the principle hormone is progesterone.

Prolactin

The anterior pituitary hormone that helps trigger and maintain lactation.

Prostaglandins

Hormonelike substances that are produced and exert many effects locally in a variety of body tissues. Sometimes called tissue hormones because they regulate biochemical activities in the tissues where they are formed.

Secretin

A hormone produced in the lining of the duodenum when chyme enters from the stomach; it stimulates the pancreas to release a fluid rich in sodium bicarbonate to help neutralize the acidic chyme, inhibits gastric motility and delays gastric emptying.

Sex Hormones

Hormones that target the reproductive tissues; the male sex hormones are androgens and the female hormones are estrogens.

Spermatogenesis

The production of the spermatozoa in the testes; stimulated by follicle stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary.

T3

Abbreviation for triiodothyronine.

T4

Abbreviation for tetraiodothyronine.

Testes

The male gonads; they produce the male reproductive cells, spermatozoa, as well as androgen hormones.

Testosterone

The principle male sex hormone; responsible for development of the secondary sex characteristics such as muscling and libido. Has an overall anabolic effect.

Tetraiodothyronine

Thyroxine; thyroid hormone that is largely converted to T3 before exerting an effect on target cells.

Thymopoietin

A hormonelike substance produced by the thymus along with thymosin; it influences the development of T lymphocytes.

Thymosin

A hormonelike substance produced by the thymus along with thymopoietin; it influences the development of T lymphocytes.

Thymus

An organ that is important in the development of a young animal's immune system; it produces hormonelike substances such as thymopoietin and thymosin that influence development of T lymphocytes for cell-mediated immunity.

Thyroid Gland

An endocrine gland made up of two parts located on either side of the larynx in the neck region; it produces thyroid hormone and calcitonin.

Thyroid Hormone

The collective name given to two hormones produced by the thyroid gland - T3 and T4. It helps an animal generate body heat; influences the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids; and encourages growth and development of the nervous and musculoskeletal systems in young animals.

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone

The anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the growth and development of the thyroid gland and causes it to produce its hormones.

TSH

Abbreviation for thyroid-stimulating hormone.

Triiodothyronine

The main thyroid hormone; contains three iodine molecules.

Hyperglycemia

These hormones produce _____: growth hormone, thyroid hormone, glucocorticoids, and glucagon.

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