Human Development Exam 2

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Reflexes

Inborn, automatic responses to stimulation, adaptive value, prepare for future motor skills, tell us about health of nervous system.

Moro reflex

reflex when baby is startled or playdropped, it puts out arms and then brings limbs to midline

Stepping reflex

Reflex that causes newborn babies to make little stepping motions if they are held upright with their feet just touching a surface

Palmar grasp

An infant reflex that occurs when something is placed in the infant's palm; the infant grasps the object.

Swimming reflex

4-6 months/ infants tendency to paddle and kick in a sort of swimming motion when lying face down in a body of water

Rooting reflex

a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple

Tonic reflex

when infant is supine and head turns to one side, the same arm and leg are extended, and the same arm and leg are flexed. this disappears after 3-4 months, and then the head is maintained at midline

Babinski

extension upward of the toes when the sole of the foot is stroked firmly on the outer side from the heel to the front

Sucking reflex

Reflex that causes a newborn to make sucking motions when a finger or nipple if placed in the mouth

Eye Blink reflex

permanent reflex. infant quickly closes eyelids. protects infant from strong stimulation.

Sense of Touch

Helps stimulate early physical growth and emotional development, reflexive behaviors, sensitivity to pain

Sense of Smell and Taste

Can distinguish basic tastes, Amniotic fluid is rich in tastes and smells that vary with mother's diet, preferences development in utero, can identify mother at birth, prefer sweet tastes, learn to like new tastes quickly

Sense of Hearing

Can hear a wide variety of sounds and sensitivity improves greatly over the first few months, well developed at birth, hear variety of sounds and pitches, prefer complex sounds, learn patterns quickly, sensitivity to voices and seem prepared to learn language.

Sense of Vision

Least developed sense at birth, can't see far away or focus clearly, try to track objects, color improves over first 3 months, visual structures in the eye and brain are not fully formed, can only see a couple of feet.

Motor skills development

A combination of cognitive and physical development, whereby humans develop the ability to perform a wide range of tasks

Gross- Motor Development

control over actions that help infants get around in the environment., such as crawling, standing and walking.

Fine- Motor Development

smaller movements, such as reaching and grasping

Factors of Motor Skills

CNS development, body's movement capacity, child's goals, environmental supports

Body Growth

Gain 50% in height from birth to age 1, 75% by age 2, grow in spurts, gain baby fat until 9 months, then get slimmer, fat helps regulate temp, girls slightly shorter and lighter than boys, some ethnic differences

Growth Trends

Head grows first then body, arms grow before hands etc. Measure weight, height, head circumference through toddlerhood

Cephalocaudal

"head to tail" lower part of body grows later than the head

Proximodistal

"near to far" extremities grow later than head, chest and trunk

Influences on Early Growth

Heredity, nutrition, emotional well- being

Heredity

the biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next

Nutrition

Breast feeding v. bottle feeding, malnutrition

Emotional well- being

problems can cause failure to thrive

Benefits of Breast Feeding

Correct fat- protein balance, nutritionally complete, promotes healthy growth patterns, disease protection, better tooth and jaw development, ensures digestibility, easier transition to solid food, breast feed for 2 years

Types of Malnutrition

marasmus, kwashiorkor, iron-deficiency anemia, food insecurity

Marasmus

extreme malnutrition and emaciation (especially in children)

Kwashiorkor

a form of protein deficiency, most often seen in starving children, characterized by retarded growth and abdominal distention caused by liver enlargement

Iron- deficiency anemia

a form of anemia due to lack of iron in the diet or to iron loss as a result of chronic bleeding

Food insecurity

Typical in low income families, food might be provided but it is not nutritional or is not always available.

Consequences of Malnutrition

Physical symptoms, growth and weight problems, poor motor development, learning and attention problems, passive, irritable, and anxiety

Emotional well being

attention is a vital as food for healthy physical growth

Habituation

study of how babies get bored

Imitation

method of learning, more difficult to induce in babies 2 to 3 months old than right after birth,

Andrew Meltzoff

newborns imitate as much as older children and adults

Mirror Neurons

enable us to observe another person's behavior while stimulating that behavior in our own brain, crying when someone else is crying or feeling their sadness.

Piaget's Sensory Motor stage

spans the first 2 years of life, organized ways of making sense of experiences, called schemes, change with age most complex period of development

Building Schemes

Adaption, Assimilation, Accommodation

Adaption

building schemes

Assimilation

using current schemes to interpret external world

Accommodation

adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit environment

Cognitive equilibrium

In Piagetian theory, a state in which children's schemas are in balance and are undisturbed by conflict, children are not changing much, prompts assimilation

Cognitive Disequilibrium

Piaget's term for when a new experience or idea does not fit a person's existing understanding (dog has 4 of the 5 features of a cat, but doesn't know what a dog is yet) prompts accommodation

Organization

new schemes are rearranged, linking them with other schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system.

Circular reaction

repeating events become strengthened into a new scheme

Sensorimotor Substages

stages from birth to 2 years old

Reflexive Schemes

birth to 1 month, newborn reflexes

primary circular reaction

1 to 4 moths, simple motor habits centered around own body

secondary circular reactions

4 to 8 months, repeat interesting effects in soundings

coordination of secondary circular reaction

8-12 months, intentional, goal directed behavior, object permanence

tertiary circular reactions

12-18 months, explore properties of objects through novel actions

mental representations

18 months- 2 years internal depictions of objects or events, deferred imitation

goal- directed

coordinating schemes deliberately to solve simple problems

object permanence

understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight

deferred imitation

remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present

Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory

social contexts contribute to cognitive development

Zone of Proximal Development

tasks a child cannot do alone but can learn to do with help, scaffolding

Three Theories of Language Development

B.F. Skinner (Behaviorist), Noam Chomsky (Nativist), Interactionist

Behaviorist

Language is learned through operant conditioning (reinforcement) and imitation

Nativist

inborn language acquisition (LAD) biologically prepares infants to learn rules of language

Interactionist

inner capacities and environment work together, social context is important

First speech sounds

cooing (vowel like noises)
babbling (repeat consonant- vowel comb.)

Joint attention

child attends to the same object or event as the as the care giver

give and take

ex. pat-a-cake, peekaboo

preverbal gestures

direct adults' attention ex. pointing to cupboard to get a cookie

First words

underextension and overextension

underextension

apply words too narrowly ex. bear

overextension

applying a word to a wider collection of objects and events ex. using car for buses, trains, trucks, and fire engines

Two- word utterances

most children show a steady continuous increase in the rate of word learning through the preschool years. telegraphic speech

telegraphic speech

focus on high content words, omitting smaller, less important ones

lateralization

specialization of the left and right hemispheres of the brain

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