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Basaltic (mafic) lavas

Contain more iron and magnesium than rhyolitic (felsic) lavas

Which national park in the United States is home to a large volcanic caldera formed through a very large explosive eruption 630,000 years ago

Yellowstone

Whether an eruption will primarily produce lava flows or pyroclastic debris is influenced by

All of the above

Of the three primary forms of subaerial volcanoes, ________________ consist of alternatig layers of tephra (unlithified volcanic debris) and solidified lava

Stratovolcanoes

Rhyolitic (felsic) lavas

Do not flow as far from the vent as basalic (mafic) lavas do

Non-violent eruptions characterized by extensive flows of basaltic (mafic) lava are termed

Effusive

Gases that are abundantly emitted by volcanoes include

Water vapor, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide

Hot-spot volcanoes

All of the above

Sedimentary clasts and grains become rounded primarily during

Transportation

Bedding in a sedimentary rock refers to

The development of layering within sedimentary rocks

Compaction and cementation of grains occurs during

Lithification

Cemented shells of marine organisms form which kind of sedimentary rock

Biochemical

Lithified detritus (breakdown products of preexisting rocks) forms which kind of sedimentary rock

Clastic

The removal of detritus from weathered rock at an outcrop (surface of exposed rock) is called

Erosion

Physical precipitation of gypsum due to evaporation of seawater produces which kind of sedimentary rock

Chemical

A buried body of shale is subjected to differential stress at temperatures greater than 200°C, causing clay minerals to grow in a preferred orientation and producing a slate. This is an example of

Metamorphism

An earthquake occurs with an epicenter in the town of New Madrid, Missouri, in the interior of the North American Plate. Where might the hypocenter of this earthquake plausibly be found

20 km beneath New Madrid

Body waves include

both S- and P- waves

Compared to low-grade metamorphic rocks, high-grade rocks

Are produced at greater temperatures and pressures

Earthquake waves that pass through the interior of the Earth are termed

Body waves

For a fault with a steep fault plane (closer to vertical than horizontal), when the footwall side moves upward relatively to the hanging wall, the fault is termed

Normal

For a fault with a steep fault plane (closer to vertical than horizontal), when the hanging wall side moves upward relatively to the footwall, the fault is termed

Reverse

Metamorphism may be induced by

All of the above

Spreading peanut butter on bread is an example of

Shear stress

The parent rock subjected to metamorphism

May belong to any of the three primary rock types

The point on the Earth's surface directly above the point where an earthquake occurs is termed the

Epicenter

The preexisting rock which is subsequently altered to form a metamorphic rock is termed a

Protolith

The region of thermally metamorphosed rock surrounding a cooled pluton is called a(n)

Aureole

Two common metamorphic rocks that typically lack foliation are

Quartzite and marble

The point within Earth where an earthquake takes place is termed the

hypocenter

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