Chapter 4: Attitudes Emotions and Ethics

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. Describe each of the components in the ABC model of attitudes and provide an example of each.

Affect- is the emotional component of an attitude. It refers to an individual's feeling about something or someone
Example:I don't like my boss.

behavioral intentions- is the intention to behave in a certain way toward an object or person.
Example: I want to transfer to another department.

Cognition: elements are evaluative beliefs and are measured by attitude scales or by asking about thoughts.
Example: I believe my boss plays favorites at work.

Describe how people try to resolve cognitive dissonance.

They manage the tension by changing their attitudes or behavior.

Explain how attitudes are formed.

Attitudes are learned. Our responses to people and issues evolve over time. Two major influences on attitudes are direct experience and social learning.

. List the four processes required to learn from observing a model.

1.The learner must focus attention on the model.
2. The learner must retain what was observed from the model. 3. Retention is accomplished in two basic ways. In one way, the learner "stamps in" what was observed by forming a verbal code for it. The other way is through symbolic rehearsal, by which the learner forms a mental image of himself or herself behaving like the model.
4. Behavioral reproduction must occur; that is, the learner must practice the behavior.
The learner must be motivated to learn from the model.

. Explain the relationship between attitudes and behavior.

the degree to which an attitude predicts behavior.

. List and describe five things that affect the strength of the relationship between attitudes and behaviors.

The timing of the measurement, Personality factors,social constraints, relevance,attitude specificity

Discuss proposed relationships between job satisfaction and job performance.

High Performance gives you high satisfaction.

Satisfactions gives you high performance

. Explain how rewards affect the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance.

The key to influencing both satisfaction and performance through rewards is that the rewards are valued by employees and are tied directly to performance.

. List major causes of job dissatisfaction and list the negative effects of job satisfaction and job performance, including the effects of workplace deviance.

...

Explain what organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) are and which individuals are more likely to engage in OCBs

behavior that is above and beyond the call of duty. behavior that is above and beyond the call of duty.

. Describe in some detail the three types of organizational commitment.

1. Affective commitment is an employee's intention to remain in an organization because of a strong desire to do so. It consists of three factors:

A belief in the goals and values of the organization.
A willingness to put forth effort on behalf of the organization.
A desire to remain a member of the organization.

2. Continuance commitment is an employee's tendency to remain in an organization because he or she cannot afford to leave.

3. Normative commitment is a perceived obligation to remain with the organization.

Explain how three major characteristics of the source, three characteristics of the target, and the characteristics of the message can affect one's ability to persuade others.

Source Characterisitcs: expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness

Characterisitcs of Target: persuasion, self-esteem, attitudes

Characterisitcs of the message: emotional tone, non-verbal cues, attitude target

. Explain the differences between the central route to persuasion and the peripheral roué to persuasion.

The central route to persuasion involves direct cognitive processing of the message's content.

In the peripheral route to persuasion, the individual is not motivated to pay much attention to the message's content.

Define emotions.

Mental states that typically include feelings, physiological changes, and the inclination to act.

. Explain where emotions originate and explain how understanding where emotions come from can help us gain greater control of our emotions (lecture).

...

Define emotional contagion and explain why it is important to manage emotions in the workplace.

A dynamic process through which the emotions of one person are transferred to another either consciously or unconsciously through nonverbal channels.

Emotional contagion is an important work process because most jobs today require some degree of interpersonal interaction.

. Explain how emotional labor can have a negative effect on job performance (lecture).

...

Define ethics and ethical behavior.

Ethics is the study of moral values and moral behavior.

Ethical behavior is acting in ways consistent with one's personal values and the commonly held values of the organization and society.

Explain how each of four individual characteristics affect ethical behavior.

value systems, locus of control, Machiavellianism, and cognitive moral development.

. List the organizational factors that influence how each of organizational ethical behavior in the organization and relate the characteristics described in the book to the three pillars of ethical organizations.

1. The competence to identify ethical issues and evaluate the consequences of alternative courses of action.

2. The self-confidence to seek out different opinions about the issue and decide what is right in terms of a particular situation.

3. Tough-mindedness-the willingness to make decisions when all that needs to be known cannot be known and when the ethical issue has no established, unambiguous solution.

Distinguish between instrumental and terminal values.

Instrumental values reflect the means to achieving goals; that is, they represent the acceptable behaviors to be used in achieving some end state.

Terminal values, by contrast, represent the goals to be achieved or the end states of existence.

Describe Machiavellianism and identify the traits of High=Machs.

Machiavellianism, then, is a personality characteristic indicating one's willingness to do whatever it takes to get one's own way.

. Describe each of the levels of moral development and explain how each level affects ethical behavior..

In level I, called the premoral level, the person's ethical decisions are based on rewards, punishments, and self-interest. In stage 1, the individual obeys rules to avoid punishment. In stage 2, the individual follows the rules only if it is in his or her immediate interest to do so.

In level II, the conventional level, the focus is on the expectations of others (parents, peers) or society. In stage 3, individuals try to live up to the expectations of people close to them. In stage 4, they broaden their perspective to include the laws of the larger society. They fulfill duties and obligations and want to contribute to society.

In level III, the principled level, what is "right" is determined by universal values. The individual sees beyond laws, rules, and the expectations of other people. In stage 5, individuals are aware that people have diverse value systems. They uphold their own values despite what others think. For a person to be classified as being in stage 5, decisions must be based on principles of justice and rights. For example, a person who decides to picket an abortion clinic just because his religion says abortion is wrong is not a stage 5 individual. A person who arrives at the same decision through a complex decision process based on justice and rights may be a stage 5 individual. The key is the process rather than the decision itself. In stage 6, the individual follows self-selected ethical principles. If there is a conflict between a law and a self-selected ethical principle, the individual acts according to the principle.

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