Physics Chapter 17 & 18 (Test 2)

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Lenses and Mirrors

Law of Reflection

the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection

normal

The line in a ray diagram that shows the direction of the barrier and is drawn at a right angle or perpendicular to the barrier

incident ray

the ray that comes from an object and strikes a surface

reflected ray

The ray that reflects off of the mirror and equals the incident ray.

angle of incidence

angle between an incident ray and the normal to a surface

angle of reflection

the angle between a reflected ray and a line perpendicular to the reflecting surface at the point of incidence

specular reflection

a reflection produced by a smooth surface in which parallel lights rays are reflected in parallel

diffuse reflection

a scattered, fuzzy reflection produced by a rough surface

plane mirror

a flat, smooth surface from which light is reflected by regular reflection, producing a virtual image that is the same size as the object, has the same orientation and is the same distance from the mirror as the object

object

a luminous or illuminated source of light rays that are the be reflected by a mirrored surface

image

the combination of image points in a plane mirror from which the reflected object seems to originate

virtual image

the image formed of diverging light rays; is always on the opposite side of the mirror from the object

concave mirror

a mirror that reflects light from its inwardly curving surface and can produce either an upright, virtual image or an inverted, real image

principal axis

a straight line perpendicular to the surface of a mirror that divides the mirror in half

focal point

the point where incident light rays that are parallel to the principal axis converge after reflecting from the mirror

focal length

the position of the focal point with respect to the mirror along the principal axis

real image

an inverted optical image that is smaller than the object and is formed by the converging of light rays

spherical aberration

the image defect of a spherical mirror that does not allow parallel light rays far from the principal axis to converge at the focal point, and produces an image that is fuzzy, not sharp

magnification

the amount that an image is enlarged or reduced in size, relative to the object

convex mirror

a mirror that reflects light from its outwardly curving surface and produces an upright, reduced, virtual image

index of refraction

for a medium, is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in that medium

snell's law of refraction

states that the product if the index of refraction of a medium and the sine of the angle of incidence equals the product of the index of refraction of a second medium and the sine of the angle of refraction

critical angle

the certain angle of incidence in which the refracted light ray lies along the boundary between two media

total internal refraction

occurs when light traveling through an area with a higher index of refraction to an area with a lower index of refraction hits a country at an angle that exceeds the critical angel and all light reflects back into the area with the higher index of refraction

dispersion

the separation of white light into a spectrum of colors by such means as a bass prism or water droplets in the atmosphere

lens

a piece of transparent material, such as glass or plastic, that is used to focus light and form an image

convex lens

a converging lens, thicker at its center than at its edges, that refracts parallel light rays so the rays meet at a point when surrounded by material with a lower index of refraction; can produce a smaller, inverted, real image, or a larger, upright, virtual image

concave lens

a diverging lens, thinner at its middle than its edges, that spread out light rays passing through it when surrounded by material with a lower index of refraction; produces a smaller, virtual, upright image

thin lens equation

states that the inverse of the focal length of a spherical lens equals the sum of the inverses of the image position and the object position (1/f= 1/di + 1/do)

nearsightedness

a vision defect in which a person cannot see distant objects because images are focused in front of the retina, can be corrected with a concave lens

farsightedness

a vision defect in which a person cannot see close objects clearly because images are formed behind the retina, can be corrected with a convex lens

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explain why light bends when it passes from one medium to another, and relate this to snell's law of refraction

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understand what the index of refraction tells us

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explain total internal reflection and under what circumstances the light would be reflected

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explain how convex lens can produce either real or virtual images

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explain how concave lenses always produce virtual images

un

understand how ray diagrams can be used to locate images formed by concave and convex lenses

fjds

understand how the eye focuses light to form an image

fj

explain nearsightedness and farsightedness and how eyeglass lenses correct these defects

GAH

explain the law of reflection with the use of a ray diagram

b

explain what happens when light strikes a smooth surface versus a rough surface

f

explain how plane mirrors always produce virtual images

yo

describe the properties of concave and convex mirrors

fds

explain how concave mirror can produce either real or virtual images

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explain how convex mirrors always produce virtual images

j

describe some of the uses of spherical mirrors

bn

understand how ray diagrams can be used to locate images formed by plane, concave, and convex mirrors

total internal refraction

when light strikes the boundary of a medium with a lower index of refraction at an angle so great that there is no refracted ray, _________ occurs

dispersion

the separation of light into its spectrum is _____

farsightedness

the condition where the focal length of the eye is too long is called ____

snells law of refraction

the relationship of the angle of incidence to the angle of refraction is stated in ____

lens

a transparent material that has an index of refraction greater than air is a(n) _____

index of refraction

_____ is a property of a medium that affects the speed of light in the medium

nearsightedness

the condition where the focal length of the eyes is too short is called ____

critical angle

the ___ describes an angle of incidence at which a refracted ray lies along the boundary of a substance

thin lens equation

the ___ relates the focal length of a spherical thin lens to the object position and image position

concave lens

a transparent refracting device that is thinner in the middle than at the edges is a(n) _______

convex lens

a transparent refracting device that is thicker in the middle than at the edges is a(n) _______

normal

the angle of incidence is the angle between the incoming light beam and the ______

does

the speed of light __ depend on the medium through which the light is traveling

refraction

_____ involves the bending

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