two or more people who, for longer than a few moments interact with and influence one another and perceive on another as "us."
(1) original meaning: the tendency of people to perform simple or well-learned tasks better when others are present. (2) Current meaning: the strengthening of dominant (prevalent, likely) responses in the presence of others.
the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable.
loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad.
group-produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members' average tendency, not a split within the group.
a false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding.
"the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action."-Irving Janis (1971).