Mental processes such as thinking, knowing, problem solving, remembering, and forming mental representations.
The sudden realization of the relationship between elements in a problem situation, which makes the solution apparent.
Learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement and is not demonstrated until the organism is motivated to do so.
A mental representation of a spatial arrangement such as a maze.
Observational Learning (Modeling)
Learning by observing the behavior of others and the consequences of that behavior; learning by imitation.
The individual who demonstrates a behavior or whose behavior is imitated.
Learning a new behavior from a model through the acquisition of new responses.
Exhibiting a behavior similar to that shown by a model in an unfamiliar situation.
Displaying a previously suppressed behavior because a model does so without receiving punishment.
Suppressing a behavior because a model is punished for displaying the behavior.
The mental processes that are involved in acquiring, storing, retrieving, and using information and that include sensation, perception, memory, imagery, concept formation, reasoning, decision making, problem solving, and language.
A form of thinking in which conclusions are drawn from a set of facts.
Reasoning from the general to the specific, or drawing particular conclusions from general principles.
Reasoning in which general conclusions are drawn from particular facts or individual cases.
The representation in the mind of a sensory experience - visual, auditory, gustatory, motor, olfactory, or tactile.
A mental category used to represent a class or group of objects, people, organizations, events, situations, or relations that share common characteristics or attributes.
A concept that is clearly defined by a set of rules, a formal definition, or a classification system; also known as an artificial concept.
A concept acquired not from a definition but through everyday perceptions and experiences; also known as a fuzzy concept.
An example that embodies the most common and typical features of a concept.
The individual instances of a concept that are stored in memory from personal experience.
The process of considering alternatives and choosing among them.
Systematic Decision Making
Making a decision after carefully considering all possible alternatives.
Elimination by Aspects
A decision-making approach in which alternatives are evaluated against criteria that have been ranked according to importance.
Rules of thumb that are derived from experience and used in decision making and problem solving, even though there is no guarantee of their accuracy or usefulness.
A cognitive rule of thumb that says that the probability of an event or the importance assigned to it is based on its availability in memory.
A thinking strategy based on how closely a new object or situation is judged to resemble or match an existing prototype of that object or situation.
A strategy in which decision making stops as soon as a factor that moves one toward a decision has been recognized.
The way information is presented so as to emphasize either a potential gain or a potential loss as the outcome.
Rapidly formed judgements based on "gut feelings" or "instincts."
Overestimation of the importance of a factor by focusing on it to the exclusion of other relevant factors.
Thoughts and actions required to achieve a desired goal that is not readily attainable.
A rule of thumb that applies a solution that solved a problem in the past to a current problem that shares many features with the past problem.
A heuristic strategy in which a person discovers the steps needed to solve a problem by defining the desired goal and working backward to the current condition; also called 'backward search.'
A heuristic strategy in which the current position is compared with the desired goal and a series of steps is formulated and taken to close the gap between them.
A systematic, step-by-step procedure, such as a mathematical formula, that guarantees a solution to a problem of a certain type if applied appropriately and executed properly.
The failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems because of a tendency to view objects only in terms of their customary functions.
The tendency to apply a familiar strategy to the solution of a problem without carefully considering the special requirements of that problem.
The programming of computer systems to simulate human thinking in solving problems and in making judgements and decisions.
Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs)
Computer systems that are intended to mimic the human brain.
Computer programs designed to carry out highly specific functions within a limited domain.
A means of communicating thoughts and feelings, using a system of socially shared but arbitrary symbols (sounds, signs, or written symbols) arranged according to rules of grammar.
The study of how language is acquired, produced, and used, and how the sounds and symbols of language are translated into meaning.
The smallest units of sound in a spoken language.
The smallest units of meaning in a language.
The aspect of grammar that specifies the rules for arranging and combing words to form phrases and sentences.
The meaning derived from morphemes, words, and sentences.
The literal words of a sentence that are spoken or written (or signed).
The underlying meaning of a sentence.
The characteristics of spoken language, such as intonation and gestures, that indicate the social meaning of utterances.
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
The notion that the language a person speaks largely determines the nature of that person's thoughts.
Fluency in at least two languages.
Vocalization of the basic units of sound (phonemes).
The application of a word, on the basis of some shared feature, to a broader range of objects than is appropriate.
The restriction of a word to only a few, rather than to all, members of a class of objects.
Short sentences that follow a rigid word order and contain only three or so essential content words.
The act of inappropriately applying the grammatical rules for forming plurals and past tenses to irregular nouns and verbs.