# Chapter 4 World Geography Test Review

## 35 terms · Mr.Rogers

### death rate

The number of deaths per 1,000 people per year is known as the

### birth rate

The number of births per 1,000 people per year is known as the

### natural increase

When the birth rate is higher than the death rate, the gain in population is known as -

### doubling time

The time is takes for a population to double in size is known as

### zero population growth.

When the birth rate is equal to the death rate, this is known as

### demography (demographics).

The study of populations is known as

### negative population growth.

When the death rate is higher than the birth rate, this is known as

### -overpopulation -increased pollution -lack of jobs

Name at least three problems associated with rapid population growth

### Population distribution is more accurate because density is just an average. In reality the number of people per square mile is never equal throughout an entire country. Distribution shows us where people actually live. Think back to the map of the USA that we looked at and talked about how more people lived east of the Mississippi River and on the West Coast.

Which measure gives a more accurate view of population, population density or
population distribution? Why?

### The smaller the country, the higher the density, generally. If you take a set number of people and put them in a small space the density is higher than if you took the same number of people and put them in a larger area. Think back to the example we discussed where we put the entire student body in one classroom as compared to the whole school

How does the size of a country affect its population density?

### Push factors are things that cause people to want to move away from an area (high crime rate, lack of jobs, poor schools, war, etc.) Pull factors are the exact opposite. They cause people to want to move to an area (plenty of jobs, good schools, peace, etc.)

What are push and pull factors? Give three examples of each.

### urbanization.

The movement of people from rural to urban areas is known as

### Immigration is the movement of people into a country (pros = increase in available workforce, more people to pay taxes, etc.; cons = lack of jobs for everyone, overcrowding, inability of the host nation to keep up infrastructure ). Emigration is the movement of people out of a country (pros = less people competing for jobs, less demand for public services, etc.; cons = loss of labor force, less people to pay taxes, etc.)

What is the difference in immigration and emigration? How might each affect a country
positively and negatively?

### Language, religion, social groups, government, economic activities

Name the five elements of culture.

### Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism

What are the five major world religions?

### Generally we refer to their ancestry when we discuss ethnicity. Examples would include African-American, Italian-American, etc.

What characteristic of a group of people do we generally think of when we discuss
ethnic groups?

### The caste system was a system of five social classes in India. At the bottom were the Untouchables who had the least opportunities and the worst jobs. There was little social mobility between classes. Still practiced in rural areas of India, while is more modern urban centers people are moving away from it.

Describe the caste system in India.

### There are so many cultures in the world, that it makes it easier to group those that are similar when you discuss them. For example, we discussed Latin America as a culture region. This region includes Mexico, part of the Caribbean, Central and South America. Many different cultures are found there, but the commonalities of language and religion allow us to group them into one region.

Why are culture regions useful when discussing world cultures?

### Agricultural - allowed people to form permanent settlements; Industrial - beginning of mass manufacturing, led to urbanization, formation of the middle class, lower price for consumer goods; Information - instantaneous diffusion of information

Name the three major social revolutions and tell how each contributed to cultural
change.

### The advancements made during the Renaissance led to the development of the machinery that would make mass production possible.

What major movement gave rise to the innovations that would lead to the second of
the three major social revolutions?

### Cultural diffusion, Culture Hearth

What is the term used to describe the spread of new thoughts, ideas, and/or
technology? What is the term used to describe where this begins?

### The Information Revolution allowed diffusion to occur instantly

What is the major result of the third major social revolution?

### Diffusion occurs at different rates because of many different reasons. It could be that a country or region is isolated from the outside world. It could be a lack of resources or capital. There may be a government that is hindering progress from occurring.

Why do countries or regions go through the process described in question 21 at
different times? What might cause this to happen?

### People expect their government to make laws, maintain order, protect them from outside threats, and to provide services for the public.

People generally have four major expectations of their government. What are these
expectations?

### The biggest difference is the power sharing structure between national and state governments. Under a unitary system the national government has almost all of the power. Under a federal system there is a balance of power between the two. Under a confederation the states hold almost all of the power.

What is the major difference between a unitary system, federal system, and
confederation?

### Totalitarian dictatorship - Germany under Hitler; Absolute Monarchy - Saudi Arabia; Constitutional Monarchy - United Kingdom

Name the three types of autocracies and give a specific example of a country that has
that type of government.

### Political/Military - Soviet Union; Theocracy - Afghanistan under the Taliban or other countries operating under the Sharia (Islamic law)

Name the two types of oligarchies and give a specific example of a country that has that
type of government.

### In a pure democracy every citizen gets a vote on everything. In a democratic republic citizens elect representative who are then responsible to the voters.

What is the difference between a pure democracy and a democratic republic?

### Both operate under free enterprise (capitalism), and both use the idea of supply and demand. They are different in the fact that a mixed-market economy has government rules and regulations placed on business while a market economy does not.

How are a market economy and a mixed-market economy similar (name two ways)?
How are they different?

### A command economy is one in which the government owns all means of production and distribution. The types are communism and socialism. They are different in the fact that a communist government has much stricter control of the economy than a socialist government does.

What is the definition of a command economy? What are the two types of command
economies? How are they different?

### Renewable and non-renewable

Name two types of natural resources.

### Primary - drilling for oil and mining gold; Secondary - refining oil into gasoline and turning trees into paper; Tertiary - policemen and firemen; Quaternary - software engineer and medical researcher

What are the four types of economic activities discussed in Chapter 4, Section 4? Give
two examples of each.