The number of deaths per 1,000 people per year is known as the
The number of births per 1,000 people per year is known as the
When the birth rate is higher than the death rate, the gain in population is known as -
The time is takes for a population to double in size is known as
zero population growth.
When the birth rate is equal to the death rate, this is known as
The study of populations is known as
When the death rate is higher than the birth rate, this is known as
-overpopulation -increased pollution -lack of jobs
Name at least three problems associated with rapid population growth
Population distribution is more accurate because density is just an average. In reality the
number of people per square mile is never equal throughout an entire country.
Distribution shows us where people actually live. Think back to the map of the USA that
we looked at and talked about how more people lived east of the Mississippi River and
on the West Coast.
Which measure gives a more accurate view of population, population density or
population distribution? Why?
The smaller the country, the higher the density, generally. If you take a set number of
people and put them in a small space the density is higher than if you took the same
number of people and put them in a larger area. Think back to the example we
discussed where we put the entire student body in one classroom as compared to the
How does the size of a country affect its population density?
Push factors are things that cause people to want to move away from an area (high
crime rate, lack of jobs, poor schools, war, etc.) Pull factors are the exact opposite. They
cause people to want to move to an area (plenty of jobs, good schools, peace, etc.)
What are push and pull factors? Give three examples of each.
The movement of people from rural to urban areas is known as
Immigration is the movement of people into a country (pros = increase in available
workforce, more people to pay taxes, etc.; cons = lack of jobs for everyone,
overcrowding, inability of the host nation to keep up infrastructure ). Emigration is the
movement of people out of a country (pros = less people competing for jobs, less
demand for public services, etc.; cons = loss of labor force, less people to pay taxes, etc.)
What is the difference in immigration and emigration? How might each affect a country
positively and negatively?
Language, religion, social groups, government, economic activities
Name the five elements of culture.
Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism
What are the five major world religions?
Generally we refer to their ancestry when we discuss ethnicity. Examples would include
African-American, Italian-American, etc.
What characteristic of a group of people do we generally think of when we discuss
The caste system was a system of five social classes in India. At the bottom were the
Untouchables who had the least opportunities and the worst jobs. There was little social
mobility between classes. Still practiced in rural areas of India, while is more modern
urban centers people are moving away from it.
Describe the caste system in India.
There are so many cultures in the world, that it makes it easier to group those that are
similar when you discuss them. For example, we discussed Latin America as a culture
region. This region includes Mexico, part of the Caribbean, Central and South America.
Many different cultures are found there, but the commonalities of language and religion
allow us to group them into one region.
Why are culture regions useful when discussing world cultures?
Agricultural - allowed people to form permanent settlements; Industrial - beginning of
mass manufacturing, led to urbanization, formation of the middle class, lower price for
consumer goods; Information - instantaneous diffusion of information
Name the three major social revolutions and tell how each contributed to cultural
The advancements made during the Renaissance led to the development of the
machinery that would make mass production possible.
What major movement gave rise to the innovations that would lead to the second of
the three major social revolutions?
Cultural diffusion, Culture Hearth
What is the term used to describe the spread of new thoughts, ideas, and/or
technology? What is the term used to describe where this begins?
The Information Revolution allowed diffusion to occur instantly
What is the major result of the third major social revolution?
Diffusion occurs at different rates because of many different reasons. It could be that a
country or region is isolated from the outside world. It could be a lack of resources or
capital. There may be a government that is hindering progress from occurring.
Why do countries or regions go through the process described in question 21 at
different times? What might cause this to happen?
People expect their government to make laws, maintain order, protect them from
outside threats, and to provide services for the public.
People generally have four major expectations of their government. What are these
The biggest difference is the power sharing structure between national and state
governments. Under a unitary system the national government has almost all of the
power. Under a federal system there is a balance of power between the two. Under a
confederation the states hold almost all of the power.
What is the major difference between a unitary system, federal system, and
Totalitarian dictatorship - Germany under Hitler; Absolute Monarchy - Saudi Arabia;
Constitutional Monarchy - United Kingdom
Name the three types of autocracies and give a specific example of a country that has
that type of government.
Political/Military - Soviet Union; Theocracy - Afghanistan under the Taliban or other
countries operating under the Sharia (Islamic law)
Name the two types of oligarchies and give a specific example of a country that has that
type of government.
In a pure democracy every citizen gets a vote on everything. In a democratic republic
citizens elect representative who are then responsible to the voters.
What is the difference between a pure democracy and a democratic republic?
Both operate under free enterprise (capitalism), and both use the idea of supply and
demand. They are different in the fact that a mixed-market economy has government
rules and regulations placed on business while a market economy does not.
How are a market economy and a mixed-market economy similar (name two ways)?
How are they different?
A command economy is one in which the government owns all means of production and
distribution. The types are communism and socialism. They are different in the fact that
a communist government has much stricter control of the economy than a socialist
What is the definition of a command economy? What are the two types of command
economies? How are they different?
Renewable and non-renewable
Name two types of natural resources.
Primary - drilling for oil and mining gold; Secondary - refining oil into gasoline and
turning trees into paper; Tertiary - policemen and firemen; Quaternary - software
engineer and medical researcher
What are the four types of economic activities discussed in Chapter 4, Section 4? Give
two examples of each.
The uneven distribution of natural resources causes trade to occur.
What causes trade to occur?
If a country is exporting more than they import, it means that manufacturing is strong
domestically. This means that many people have jobs, which is good for the economy
and the government. Governments try to ensure this happens by placing barriers to
trade on other countries (quotas, tariffs, embargoes)
Why is it important for a country to export more than they import? How do
governments try to ensure this happens?
Free trade is trade without barriers in place.
What is free trade?